Monday, September 30, 2019
Philosophy of Education Outline I. Introduction a. Ever since I was in elementary school, I wanted to become a teacher. I have had some outstanding teachers in my lifetime and I would love to carry on the legacy. I want to inspire the future generation to make the world a better place. b. Every teacher has their own personal views on teaching, learning, goals, and professional development. c. Teaching is not just a job. Teachers mold their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ futures every day. I believe it is highly important that each teacher strives to make a difference in each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life.II. Teaching d. Tools are a necessary part of learning. I plan to use a variety of tools, including SmartBoard technology, books, videos, props, etc. I believe students learn the best by participating in hands-on activities as opposed to only lectures. e. I believe that a teacher should play many roles, not just one. This includes being the motivator, facilitator, challenger, and supporter. f. The School of Thought I agree with is Democratic. This stresses the process of learning, not just the product. It also promotes outside-the-box thinking. g.My preferred educational philosophy is progressivism. I favor an open classroom where students often work together and learn to deal with social problems as well as material from the curriculum. III. Learning h. Learning is something we do every minute of every day. When someone learns, they are broadening their horizons and gaining new experiences. i. Learning is an adventure and a voyage. j. In my classroom, I plan to incorporate a variety of strategies. This includes discussion, but will also include hands-on activities, group work, and presentations. IV. Teaching Goals k.To incorporate out-of-the-box thinking and new ideas. l. To make sure every student understands the subject matter. m. To be open to change and spontaneity. V. Personal or Professional Development n. To make each student truly feel that they are a vital part of the clas sroom, and that they have the power to make a difference. o. To be just as passionate about my work and the subjects studied as I expect my students to be. VI. Conclusion p. When I become a teacher, I hope to change the lives of each and every student. q. Making a difference is inspiring our future generation to change the world.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Kudler Fine Foods uses a biometric time system which requires the usage of time clocks to monitor the time employees engaged in work responsibilities. The method requires the use of a finger touch pad to identify the numerous time punches made by the employee. The employees information is entered upon hired into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s payroll system. Based on the numerous time punches made, the organization evaluates the employees work hours and computes the employees salary. The computation for employee salary includes Ã¢â¬Å"regular time, overtime time, bonuses, holiday pay, vacation pay, etc.Ã¢â¬ and both federal and state deductions as well as other government deductions and individual benefit deductions such as 401(k) contributions to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s salary (Apollo Group Inc., 2013). Although, this is an effective method to monitor employee work hours and compete payroll, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current system is not directly linked amongst the three operating subsidiaries. The purchase of an industry-specific software can help integrate the flow of information from the three locations by establishing an effective method of recording all of the data and feeding the database. This could prove to be cost-effective considering the expense associated with the development of a customized software. However, some modifications may be required for an industry-specific software in order to suit the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s demands. The idea is to integrate the three subsidiaries and create a better way of obtaining information and storing data. The system may require a modification to how employee hours are recorded according to the softwareÃ¢â¬â¢s specifications. The process will should remain similar to KudlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Fine Foods existing procedure requiring the need to store personal information such as exemptions and other personal data for taxing purposes. The system will maintain employee records and any update made to those records. The employee personnel responsible for administrating payroll can view this information via the integrated system and make adjustments if necessary using proper clearance by a member of management. This system will add value by improving the effectiveness of flow of data and by ensuring that there is sufficient evidence to support payroll computations amongst the subsidiary stores. References Apollo Group Inc., (2007, 2010, 2011, 2013). Kudler Fine Foods. Finance & Accounting; Accounting System Overview. Retrieved on February 11, 2013 from the University of Phoenix.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Benefits Of Becoming A Famous Sports Person Marketing Essay In our vast world today, sport has become a rapid growing industry which most people regard it as a form on entertainment in their daily life. We live in an urban age where technology is so advance which enables us to watch live broadcasts of any sports we enjoy watching through various sports channels such as ESPN which cater to any sport fanatics needs. Firstly, people enjoy watching and playing sports as they wish to pursue their dreams in becoming a famous sportsperson one day. These enthusiastic sportspeople must persevere with full determination and concentration in excelling in their performance at the sport they have chosen. In my opinion, becoming a famous sportsperson brings many benefits to ones life as an individual would be able to reap special rewards, a countless sum of income, popularity amongst his fans, living an exclusive lifestyle and the ability to give training methods to inspiring athletes in the sports world. 2.0 2.1 Ã¢â¬â Rewards Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve won th e competition!Ã¢â¬ It is every famous sports personÃ¢â¬â¢s dream to be able to say this phrase. It is undeniable that winning in competition are crucial, whether for a famous sports person or an ordinary sports person. Everyone wants to perform well in their competition; the question is, what causes famous sports person work so hard for it? In my opinion, they want to get rewards from branded companies and government. 2.1.1 Ã¢â¬â Sponsorship From Branded Companies A famous sports person usually able to get sponsorships from branded companies. This is because they work really hard and almost win every competition. Examples of branded companies are Nike, Adidas, Puma, Yonex, Carlton and Reebok. Sports persons need a huge amount of money to carry out their daily training, buy their sports equipments and accessories. Without the sponsorships, they will face a lot of obstacles in their sports life. Our famous sports persons Ã¢â¬â Olympic gold medalist and Jamaican Sprinter Usa in Bolt, they had just renewed their sponsorship arrangement with Puma until the end of 2013 lately. So Puma became the official supplier of training, performance, footwear and lifestyle apparel for Usain Bolt. Now, Usain Bolt can focus fully in his career without worries. 2.1.2 Ã¢â¬â Government Incentive Besides, government incentive will be provided to the famous sports persons. This is because they have the responsibilities to take part in local, international and global tournaments. For instance, Olympic silver medallist Lee Chong Wei is to be made a Datuk by the Penang Government. In the other hand, Malaysia Government also rewarded a cheque of RM300000 for winning the silver medal at the Olympic Games and a mock cheque for RM3000 as the pension reward. The pension payments are for life. In short, the famous sports persons definitely will get sponsorships from branded companies and government incentive as long as they maintain their excellent performances. Sports persons ach ieve iconic status instantly with awesome performance and hence are selected by top brands for endorsing their goods. 2.2 Ã¢â¬â Income Sports, apart from being a good way of testing an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise and skill, are also big money. Today, sports persons achieve iconic status immediately with excellent performance and hence are selected by top branded companies for endorsing their goods. Apart from prize money and salaries, this is also where many famous athletes make most of their money from. This has become a recent occurrence of paying millions of dollars to athletes as income, which makes most famous athletes filthy rich.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Water birth - Research Paper Example re, improves the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration, reduces stress hormones which inhibit oxytocin and the need for an epidural is reduced due to the increased release of hormonal endorphins which make contractions less painful. The perineum becomes more elastic, reducing tears, and the buoyancy created in the pool promotes more efficient contractions and allows greater freedom of movement. A study completed from March 2001 through April 2004 at a British birthing center evaluated a number of factors in a comparison study. The study aimed to differentiate between Ã¢â¬Ëpool usersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëpool births,Ã¢â¬â¢ women who labored in the pool and those who actually remained in the pool to give birth. Factors evaluated included parity, deciding factors in laboring and delivery within the pool and the effectiveness of the warm water on pain relief. The study indicated that an equal amount of primigravidae and multigravidae women were interested in the pool and the outcome indicated that 89% of the women who used the pool received both verbal and written information from their midwives during their antenatal appointments and training classes. Pool births increased steadily from 2001-2003 while the number of pool users remained nearly the same. This suggests that the idea of being calm and relaxed appealed to birthing mothers who chose to remain in the pool during the actual birth. 98% insisted they would both recommend using the pool and would also use the pool again themselves. Reasons for leaving the pool were various and included slowing down contractions when immersion was completed too quickly. This prolonged labor and guidelines were then established to make sure that labor was in an active phase before entering the pool and the majority who decided not to remain the pool left once labor reached the transitional or second stage. Other main reasons for leaving the pool were a prolonged second stage of labor, fetal heart rate deceleration, meconium staining, poor contractions in
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Airport Pasta-Sauce Interdiction Considered Harmful by Bruce Schneider - Essay Example Ad Misericordiam is the fallacy he committed, which means appeal to emotion. How did he do this? His argument is based on how people feel whenever something of theirs is being confiscated by airport screeners, calling the act a nuisance and exemplifying the feeling of annoyance all throughout the editorialÃ¢â¬âeven stating that the act of confiscation only Ã¢â¬Å"hurts innocent peopleÃ¢â¬ and is Ã¢â¬Å"a waste of time.Ã¢â¬ I believe that this is the wrong way for him to have argued against the confiscation of certain classes of objects, like his bottle of pasta, as even though he put invalid points, it still seemed like he was just mainly ranting about his experience, which left him infuriated. Also, it seems that he attacked the effectivity of the airport screeners based solely on the pasta sauce incidence, in which Schneider was certainly not trying to smuggle anything on board the plane that will or can be used for terrorist activities. Because they made a mistake this time and it caused Schneider to become irritated, he wanted to let everyone else feel whatever he feltÃ¢â¬âhoping that they will agree with him. Hence, he manipulated the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions as a way of putting forth his argument for a more efficient airport screening process that will only identify and confiscate those that poses real harm However, what does pose real harm? This is my main point in arguing against Schneider. Colognes, hand sanitizers and other forms of liquid may be used to form a bomb. First, they may just be disguised as one of these common items and then later when they are on board the plane, terrorists can assemble bombs that can cause the lives of many. Furthermore, anything can be hidden in a bottle of pasta sauce, for instance. Very small parts that make up a bomb that can blow up the entire plane can be disguised in there. Do airport screeners have the time to look thoroughly inside? Moreover, will the pasta sauce still be of any use once they are done siftingÃ through it?Ã
Assignment #4 - Essay Example M butterflyÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms range from arguments or debates over illustration of sexualities and ethnicity, orientalism politics, theatre and performance theories, and lastly the masquerade concept. As such, this essay will explore and analyze the production of M. Butterfly and how it represents Asia through the story, scenic design, costume design, movement, sound, and lights. Three synchronized actors perform a splendid kabuki style dance during the opening scene of the play m butterfly. Their enticing precise movements are elaborately done. Also, their Asian themed masks, makeup and robes are all evident. Just as Asians are stereotyped to be feminine, the actors have a delicate characteristic in their movements. The western nations have a long standing stereotype that depicts Asians as exhibiting a feminine personality unlike their western counterparts who are seen as being more masculine. Additionally, the play depicts the notion of the submissive Asian woman. M Butterfly presents a fictionalized story of a French diplomat who was in a relationship with an Asian, specifically Chinese singer for more than twenty years without actually knowing that his beautiful obedient and submissive lover was actually a male. Gallimard views himself as being clumsy when it comes to love. However, he considers himself to be blessed since he has a devoted beautiful and exotic woman (Liling Song). Hwang employs the term oriental in the play to refer to how the Asians are deemed to be exotic by the west. Unknown to him, Liling is a Chinese spy whose intent was to manipulate Gallimard by extracting information from him concerning the Vietnam War. Hwang in an interview quipped that he was basically interested in the different ways he would create and showcase total theatre. He insisted that he preferred theatre which uses different mediums at his disposal to create keep the audience glued to the play (Hwang et al, 1989). To do this, he incorporated
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Health History Worksheet - Term Paper Example Paternal grandfather First and last initials: SM Birthdate: 1933 Death date: 1994 Occupation: Retired as Plumber Education: 7th grade Primary language: English Health summary: Occupation: Housewife Education: 4th grade Primary language: English Health summary: He was diagonised with Diabetes, high blood pressure and asthma. She died from an asthma attack. Father First and last initials: JO Birthdate: 1957 Death date: Still alive Occupation: Businessman Education: College degree Primary language: English Health summary: He was diagnosed with diabetes. He died of a heart attack. FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s siblings- Summary of any significant health issues The fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s 2 brothers have been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Maternal grandfather First and last initials: TP Birthdate: 1928 Death date: 2002 Occupation: Army General Education: 8th grade Primary language: English Health summary: He was diagnosed with being obese, and had high cholesterol. He died from stroke. Maternal grandmother First and last initials: AP Birthdate: 1935 Death date: 2008 Occupation: House wife Education: 3rd grade Primary language: English Health summary: She was diagnosed with breast cancer and high blood pressure. She died from heart failure.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Operation Management - Essay Example The Assemble to Order products are really not prevalent in this category. These products include dustbin, laundry powder, floor sweeper, vacuum cleaner, steam cleaner, trash cans etc. These products are available on the shelves as Make to Stock products only except for special cases. Drapery, curtains and linen are the furnishings. An Assemble to order approach would be the best for these items where clothes are bought from the market while a tailor is employed for stitching as per the dimensions of the house. Hardwares comprise of handles, channels, rods, locks and holdbacks. These products are available as Make to Stock products and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to go for other manufacturing strategies unless special requirements have to be met. Brooms, ladders, cupboards and mops are a part of this group. This is a group of items where all 3 manufacturing strategies can be used. Ladders and cupboards can be designed through all 3 strategies while brooms and mops are best to buy as Make to Stock products. Sources of lighting and fans are available in the market. However, they have to be customized according to specific needs. So Make to Stock and Assemble to Order strategies could work here. For example, Air coolers are designed using Assemble to Order strategy many times. Modular kitchens are the norm of the day. These are designed using Make to order manufacturing. However, several accessories such as faucets, taps, crockery stand and others are available as Make to Stock products. The idols can be in form of metal, stone, wood or photo frames. While most people go for readymade idols some may actually decide to build an idol on wall in stone i.e. they may go for make to order
Monday, September 23, 2019
Public smoking bans - Essay Example There are a number of reasons for banning smoking in public places. First, such smoking endangers non Ã¢â¬â smokers, by exposing them to side stream or second hand smoke. Such smoke has been seen to cause dangerous ailments to the person who inhales it. Second, an undesirable example is set for the suggestible children, when smoking is permitted in public. Third, such prohibition enables smokers to discontinue smoking, thereby enabling them to lead a much healthier life (Khilawala). Fourth, banning smoking had legal and moral basis, which has proved to be successful in preventing young adults from falling prey to this deadly habit. Fifth, the proscription of smoking in public places has made it much more attractive to visit a discotheque or bar. Finally, the forbidding of such smoking has significantly reduced the number of individuals with cardiac complaints (Khilawala). There is consensus amongst the scientific community that smoking is extremely hazardous. It has now been confirmed that tobacco smoke results in cancer, cardiac ailments and strokes. However, it is essential to recognize that smoking harms the non Ã¢â¬â smoker, who happens to be in the vicinity of an individual who is smoking, to a much greater extent. Such passive smokers are at a considerably greater risk of contracting deadly disease (PROS vs. CONS). Furthermore, the non Ã¢â¬â smoker is forcibly exposed to smoke; and therein lies the iniquity and inequity of this untenable situation. Therefore, there is every justification to call for and impose a total ban on smoking in public. This is essential, if passive smoking is to be prevented. A recent report was categorical in declaring that approximately 440,000 denizens of the US die every year, due to the ill effects of smoking. Male smokers reduce their longevity, on an average, by 13.2 years; whereas, their female counterparts achieve a reduction of 14.5 years. The data on smoking reveals
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Adam Bede Essay George Eliot s novels are all dramas of moral conflict. She did not believe in art for arts sake, but in art for moralitys sake. According to Leslie Stephen, George Eliot believed that a work-of art not only may. but must, exercise also an ethical influence. She believed that, our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds. If we yield to temptation and sin, suffering and nemesis are sure to follow. We have to reap the consequences of our own actions. Her characters suffer because they violate some moral code, because they yield to temptation whether consciously or unconsciously, in Adam Bede both Hetty and Arthur suffer for this reason. Poignant tragedy is the result because both Arthur and Hetty are creatures of weak moral fibre. They are unable to resist temptation. This moral weakness results in sin, which is followed by punishment and intense suffering. Arthur-Hetty story traces the movement from weakness to sin and from sin to nemesis. Stratagems of Passion The stratagems of passion are seen with illuminating c1arrty when Arthur, after luncheon, is unable to recall the feelings and reflections which had been decisive in his decision to avoid Hetty. We are told of his conscious thoughts, and the self-deceptions and distortions of truth that we see in them make, so to speak, a chart of the subconscious force of his impulse to see her-as a strong underwater current, showing nosing on the surface, is yet known to be present by the extent to which its pull on the keel of a ship alters its course. It is in such accounts of motives, conscious and unconscious, that Arthur is created and exists as a character in the novel. Our recognition of his good intentions, self-deceptions and weaknesses of will make the portrayal real and acceptable to us. Maturity through Love We are not permitted to see the process by which Dinah is enabled to . overcome her fear, and it is a serious flaw in the novel that it is so. All, we learn is that having been told by Adam of his love for her and having admitted in turn a love for him, Oinah once more retreats to Stonyshire, not staying even long enough to participate in the Harvest Supper. Adam, after waiting for several weeks, is no longer able to endure the strain and sets out for Stonyshire to find her. As he leaves the Loamshire world and enters gray treeless Stonyshire, he is reminded of the painful past, but in an altered light~ for now he possesses what George Eliot calls a sense of enlarged being, the consequences of thtt ruller life brought about by his suffering. He sees Stonyshire now through Dinahs eyes, as it were, and ifhis vision includes the barren land, it also includes the wonderful flooding light and the large embracing sky. Adam waits for Dinah to return from her Sunday preaching not at her home, but on a hill top. Here, in the midst of her world, he discovers that Dnah has undergone a change, the power of her love for him has in a sense overcome her fears; she feels like cl divided person without him, and she is willing Ã¢â¬ ¢to become his wife. He, therefore, takes her back to Loamshire whence she had so fled. It is not, however, to the green and golden world of. June with which the book began; rather to an autumnal mature world. Here, on a rimy morning in departing November, when there is a tinge of sadness in the weather as well as in the joy which accompanies the wedding, Adam and Dinah are married. it is in the fitness of things that they should so come together, for they are bound to either by their common suffering for Hetty and by their painful memories, suffering gives rise to sympathy, and love based on such sympathy alone can be fruitful and lasting. Critic after critic has expressed the view that Adam is too good to be true. It has been said that he is a perfect human being, George Eliots ideal, fully mature and enlightened from the very beginning. But the truth is otherwise. A momentÃ¢â¬â¢s reflection shows that he is proud, hard and self-righteous with little sympathy for ordinary sinners, which we all poor mortals are. As a matter of fact, the novel traces the process by which he gradually sheds his faultsof his education, enlightenment and maturity, through a process of suffering and love-and becomes ultimately a complete man, a fully integrated personality, through his love of Dinah and his marriage with her. The process of his education occupies the centre of the novel. The point would become clear, if we briefly consider this process. Hard and Self-righteous There can be no denying the fact that Adam is hard and self-righteous. In the very chapter we are told,Ã¢â¬ The idle tramps always felt sure they could get a copper from Seth; they scarcely ever spoken to Adam. This is the flaw (not a fatal one) in Adams innocence: In fact, Adam is a stone-hearted person at the very beginning. The very fault in him lies in his over-confidence which makes him to think that he is righteous and it is not wrong in any way. This is told to us by the hymns he sings and the ending with the same hymn is not only appropriate but it also gives him the impression how much significant the hyn1n is? He does not harm anybody, knowingly. Not for a single moment he thinks when he hurts anybody. He is much confident about his doings, Ive seen pretty clear, ever since I could cast up a sum, as you can never do whats wrong without breeding sin and trouble more than you can ever seen. His confidence is shaken when he catches his friend red handed while making love with his beloved Hett}, in the woods. He realises his mistakes, how incomplete his mental seeing has been! He understood it all now-the locket, and everything else that had been doubtful to him a terrible scorching light showed him the hidden letters that changed the meaning of the past. Here starts the process of his education and self-realisation. Realities of MidlandsÃ¢â¬â¢ Life: George Eliots novels reveal the very aspects of the English Midlands, more specially Warwickshire and Coventry. TheÃ¢â¬ ¢ beauty of these Midlands plains caught the attraction of her eyes and these plains found their setting in her novels. Quite a feature of the scenery-and indeed of Warwickshire generally is that the hedges are everywhere closely painted with trees, whose height, as well as the riotous wastefulness of the hedgerose, give evidence of a kindly soil and climate. Methodic Themes: Written by Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity was translated into English by George Eliot. The influence of Feuerbach can be seen in George Eliot, in her works. In the above mentioned book, Feuerbach talks about the religious significance of water, wine and bread. All of three are sacred for him. The reason for the sacredness of water lies in the fact that it isa force of nature and it keeps us reminding that we have our origins in nature, the same origin of other lower creatures. Thus necessity of water symbolises our oneness with nature and Baptism as well. Wine and bread are man made things which look towards nature for the raw-material, thus symbolises that man is much superior to other lower creatures who are not so efficient to modify natural things. In the Christian ritual of Baptism, only water is used, for innocent and pure-hefirted childr~n. Whereas for the mature man, the Lords supper which includes wine and bread, is served. It suggests that man is much above animals. If the man is hungry and thirsty, he will no more remain a human being and taking of bread and wine restores him to his humanity. This truth is revealed to us through three suppers which is taken by Adam and his humanity kept ever-present in him. References Eliot. George. Adam Bede. New York: Penguin. 1996. Greegor. G. R. George Eliot: a collection of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. , Prentice Hall. 1970. Ian Adam.Character and Destiny in George Eliots Fiction. Nineteenth-Century Fiction. University of California Press 1965. 127-143 Jones, Robert Tudor A critical commentary on George Eliots Adam Bede. London: Macmillan. 1968. Levine. G. L The Cambridge companion to George Eliot. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2001. Pletzen, E Van. Eliots Adam Bede. The Explicator. 56, no. 1, (1997): 23. Thale, Jerome. The novels of George Eliot. New York, Columbia University Press, 1959. Watt, Ian P. The Victorian novel; modern essays in criticism. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1971.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Literature Review On Determinants Of Economic Growth Economics Essay There are numerous of empirical research on economic growth has been done in the past decades. The empirical study of determinant of economic growth by Barro (1991) has been an important reference to future study on the related fields. In this section, a brief review of factors that determine economic growth will be presented. The influences consider here included government spending, inflation, FDI and trade, financial development, and European integration. The size of the government expenditure and its affect on economic growth has been getting much attention in the past study. Ghali (1997) explored his research on the relationship between government expenditure and economic growth by looking at the interaction among the growth rate in per capita GDP and the share of government spending in GDP over the period of 1960-1996. He used vector autoregressive analysis and Granger-causality in his study and found that there is no consistent evidence that government spending can increase Saudi Arabias per capita output growth. This result was contrasted with the two study by Cheng and Tin (1997), Loizides and Vamvoukas (2005). Both study suggested that government expenditure Granger-cause economic growth. Cheng and Tin (1997) emphasize on the granger causality between government expenditure, money supply and economic growth in South Korea for the period of 1954-1994. They applying the same technique as Ghali (1997) and claimed that money supply affect growth as well but money supply doesnt Granger-cause government expenditure. However, the study by Loizides and Vamvoukas (2005) focused on the causal link between the size of the public sector and real per capita income within the bivariate and trivariate frameworks on their sample countries of United Kingdom, Ireland and Greece. They have draw out three conclusions, first, public expenditure Granger causes growth in the short run and long run in all of the sample countries. Second, both bivariate and trivariare framework shows that increase in output would cause growth in public expenditure in Greece. Third, their trivariate model has indicates that causality from national income to public spending in Greece and British. Therefore, the different result from these study lead to a conclusion that in certain circumstances, changes of government expenditure do not necessary cause changes in the economic growth when government spending deliver services in an inefficiency way. Inflation was another controversial debate issues. Malik and Chowdhury (2001) observed the relationship between inflation and GDP growth for four South Asian countries which is Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. They employed the co-integration and error correction models to the annual data retrieved from the IMF International Financial Statistics. They established two results : (i) inflation and economic growth are positively and statistically significantly related for all four countries. (ii) the sensitivity of growth to changes in inflation rates is smaller than that of inflation to changes in growth rates. These results have crucial policy implication, that is, although moderate inflation foster economic growth feeds back into inflation by stimulating the economy. Another study by Faria and Carneiro (2001) claimed a divergent view from Malik and Chowdhurry (2001). They have measure the relationship between inflation and economic growth in the context of Brazil which has been undergone severe inflation until recently. This study has constructed a bivariate time series model (vector autoregression) with annual data for the period between 1980 and 1995, they argued that although there is a negative relationship between inflation and economic growth in the short run, but in the long run, economic growth does not affected by inflation. Thus, this result supported the theories of hyperinflation usually associated with economic depress and political and social upheavals and as a result, it is against the perspective that inflations affects economic growth in the long run. In addition to that, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade were another influence that determined economic growth. Makki and Somwaru (2004) have analyze the role of FDI and trade in promoting economic performance across 66 developing countries, and the interaction among FDI, trade and economic growth by adopting unrelated regression (SUR) method and instrumental variable (3-stage least squares) approach over the period of 1971-2001. They brought to four interesting results. First, the variables of FDI and trade have a strong positive relationship. Second, FDI stimulates domestic investment. Third, macroeconomic policies and institutional stability is the precondition for FDI-driven growth. Fourth, economic growth would facilitated by a lowering inflation rate, tax burden, and government consumption. Similarly, the study of Yao (2006) investigate the effect of export and FDI on economic performance by using Pedrons panel unit root test, and Arellano and Bonds dynamic panel data estimating technique on the sample data of 28 Chinese provinces. This study has stressed on two essential strategies that adopted by Chinese government to explained why China can be success in the long period. One was the export-push strategy that replaced the self-reliance and import substitution strategy and the other was the adoption of foreign technology and international business practices through the uses of FDI. Their data also indicated that openness can boost economic growth if the unforeseen risk can be managed in the proper way. Financial development was the fourth factor. Liang (2006) inquired the impacts of financial development on the pattern of regional economic growth in China. The GMM approach has been employed in his research throughout the period of 1990 to 2001. He mentioned that financial development significant contributes to the economic growth in coastal region but not in the inland regions. Even though the structure and the size of financial sector in China are the same, financial function provided by the financial sector might vary across region. Meanwhile, Ang and McKibbin (2007) included financial liberalization in his observation. This research evaluated whether financial development leads to economic growth or vice versa in the economy of Malaysia. Their analysis was consistent with Liang (2006), which is financial development leads to economic growth. Variety of approaches being used in this study and the empirical evidence asserts that financial sector development in Malaysia can be stimulated through financial liberalization when the repressionist policies have been removed. Moreover, financial depth and economic development tends to have a positive relationship. They also view that economic growth would generate higher financial depth in the long run. Growth effects of European integration will be the last factors we discuss here. Henrekson et.al (1997), estimated the effects of European integration in EC and EFTA on economic growth. Their analysis has been conducted across a large sample of both developed and developing countries. They comprised a dummy for membership in EC or EFTA during 1976 -1985. They addressed that there is a significant and positive effects on economic growth but the effects became smaller and significant when the sample was restricted to 22 developed and OECD countries. The effects do not change for membership in EFTA as in the EC due to the technology transfer instead of investment. All the empirical study by these researchers provided a useful guidance for both domestic policy makers and the development partners. Nevertheless, more prospects might be explored on the determinant of economic growth, especially corruption. As in Malaysia, it is a significant variable that should be tested on.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Since the beginning of the new millennium, the whole world has been seeking world peace harder than ever before. Ironically though, the world today has also seen tragic wars and conflicts that have the capability to destroy mankind. Possession of nuclear weapons, indiscriminate attacks against innocents, and abuse of human rights are the realities that we should not turn our back on but instead face up to. Strong individual, ethnic, and national identities sometimes lead to conflicts because they are entities which drive humans to become self-seeking, disrespectful, and often exclusionary. However, the process of becoming aware of individual identity also can result in the solution of international conflicts between people of different cultures and ethnicities. This happens because in the process of understanding who you are, you are also able to appreciate other people's identities. Hence, it is important for every single person, whatever culture or philosophy he or she possesses, t o believe that an effort made by an individual can directly solve future conflicts between people, no matter what their ethnic differences. One must understand conflicts to solve them. It is important to consider what they are, why they are, what characteristics they have, and how they can be categorized. Conflicts are natural among humans; people desire to protect their local society or, in the present, the international community. In fact, a conflict that maintains or eventually reunifies national identity is an advantage for human society.1 Imannuel Kant, an Enlightenment philosopher of the eighteenth century who strongly believed in international cooperation and peace, even stated, "All wars are so many attempts to bring about new relations among the states and to form new bodies...there is created a state that civic commonwealth can maintain itself automatically."2 In the same way, confrontation within a society sometimes has positive consequences. During the Civil Rights movement in the United States in the 1960s, African Americans were determined to draw a line between white people and themselves recognize themsel ves as an independent and equal entity. They suffered severe conflict to achieve this goal. Conflict exists today because we have ethnic or cultural borders that are not only geographical (i.e. national borders) but also psychological. These boundaries are often mutable and situational, however. In fact, many anthropologists define ethnic identity and boundaries in different ways. One of the reasons for the different definitions is that people choose which ethnic identity to use based on context.
Importance of Settings in Jane Eyre Throughout Jane Eyre, as Jane herself moves from one physical location to another, the settings in which she finds herself vary considerably. Bronte makes the most of this necessity by carefully arranging those settings to match the differing circumstances Jane finds herself in at each. As Jane grows older and her hopes and dreams change, the settings she finds herself in are perfectly attuned to her state of mind, but her circumstances are always defined by the walls, real and figurative, around her. As a young girl, she is essentially trapped in Gateshead. This sprawling house is almost her whole world. Jane has been here for most of her ten years. Her life as a child is sharply defined by the walls of the house. She is not made to feel wanted within them and continues throughout the novel to associate Gateshead with the emotional trauma of growing up under its "hostile roof with a desperate and embittered heart." Gateshead, the first setting is a very nice house, though not much of a home. As she is constantly reminded by John Reed, Jane is merely a dependent here. When she finally leaves for Lowood, as she remembers later, it is with a "sense of outlawry and almost of reprobation." Lowood is after all an institution where the orphan inmates or students go to learn. Whereas at Gateshead her physical needs were more than adequately met, while her emotional needs were ignored. Here Jane finds people who will love her and treat her with respect. Miss Temple and Helen Burns are quite probably the first people to make Jane feel important since Mr. Reed died. Except for Sunday services, the girls of Lowood never leave the confines of those walls. At Low... ... temperament than any she has had before and the walls that she finds herself within are attractive. At Moor House, Jane is exposed to a way of living she had never quite seen before and, having seen the reality of the world she had previously only imagined. She then takes a job as a teacher -- the only skill she truly has. She finds another home, and again it suits her prospects. The cottage is Ã¢â¬Å"a little room with white-washed walls and a sanded floor" and a bed to sleep in. Here at Moor house is where Jane learns what it is to be an independent woman. Of course the twenty thousand pounds from John Eyre's inheritance doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt. In the final setting of the book at Ferndean, this is the place at where Jane will settle down. At the ends she concludes at Ferndean where she has now been cast into the role of a mother and from here so concludes the book.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Brian Wilson I can remember when I was a little girl, my father and I would listen to Beach BoysÃ¢â¬â¢ albums together in our living room. My favorite song was Kokomo and I would sing it all the time. I loved the cheerful sounds of the music and the fun loving attitude that The Beach Boys portrayed. As I grew older, I still loved The Beach Boys, and I continued to listen to their music frequently. The more I learned about music the more amazing their music seemed. The tight harmonies and unique instruments made each song unique and made me more and more interested in finding out how they were created. Brian Wilson is the creative genius that wrote and produced much of The Beach BoysÃ¢â¬â¢ music. Despite being near deaf in one ear, Wilson managed to not only provide the Beach Boys with countless hit records, but also made a major impact on popular music as a whole. His music influenced most major pop musicians today and his harmonies are used in songs sung by such pop acts as NÃ¢â¬â¢Sync and The Backstreet Boys. Even the Beatles admit that they felt threatened by the Beach Boys and without the creative challenge that Brian Wilson posed, both Revolver and Sgt. PepperÃ¢â¬â¢s Lonely Hearts Club Band would have never come into being. Born in Inglewood, California, June 10, 1942, Brian was the first child of Murry, who was an aspiring songwriter, and Audree Wilson, a talented pianist. BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s life was always full of music. Brian Wilson said in his biography WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t It Be Nice, Ã¢â¬Å"As far as I can remember, I have always heard music, faint strains of melody floating in my head...I was able to tune into a mysterious, god-given music. It was my gift.Ã¢â¬ However, Brian did not have a happy childhood. His father both physically and emotionally abused Brian, BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, and later, BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s two younger brothers, Dennis and Carl. His mother turned to alcoholism to escape from the abuse. Also, because she was afraid of Murry, Audree rarely showed her boys physical affection.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
As a result of researches that recognized the existence of human factors in error management, the aviation industry also began to take initiatives to reformat aviation organisations. The aviation industry shifted to a more open culture that valued communication and at the same time recognized that human error will always be present but through time and more advanced studies can be reduced further (Sexton, Thomas & Helmreich, 2000). Almost all aspects have been looked into. Selection and training processes were raised to a different level. While technical skills were highly valued before, they have been found to be inadequate in dealing with safety concerns. Selection of aircrew now includes processes that determine their ability to learn from errors and to become team players. There also has been a new approach for training Ã¢â¬â not only the pilots, but the entire crew is trained. There are also a mounting number of interventions that are being tested for their effectivity to modify behavioral patterns that could injure a systemÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. Because crew resource management (CRM) failure is implicated in most aircraft accidents, CRM training programs, which began as a part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] program in 1979, began to be widely received by aviation organisations. Now on its 5th generation, CRM trainings for the crew have been conducted by major airlines and even the navy. The CRM training program encompasses many aspects of aviation safety such as situation awareness, task management and communication (Thomas, 2004). The 5th generation CRM programs can be viewed as a tool to effectively manage errors. CRM combats errors in three ways: obviously, the first one is the avoidance of error; the second Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 10 one is the Ã¢â¬Å"suppressionÃ¢â¬ of the error before it happens; and third, the mitigation of the effects of the errors should it not be avoided (Helmreich, Merritt & Wilhelm, 1999). The focus of the 5th generation CRM is the normalization of errors Ã¢â¬â whether due to active or latent failures Ã¢â¬â and the development of strategies to manage these errors (Helmreich, Merritt & Wilhelm, 1999). Although CRM programs focus on human errors and its effects on aviation safety, it is never entirely a behavioral training. After all, if you recall, a Ã¢â¬Å"productive systemÃ¢â¬ is an interaction of human and technological factors. Therefore, CRM is not to be taken as a stand-alone program. It is meant to be incorporated to technical trainings where the crew has to be adept in the operation of modern aviation technology and at the same time has to learn non-technical skills such as effective communication, coordination and teamwork. Despite the fact that intervention programs like the CRM has been introduced and conducted for crews in major and regional airlines for the two decades, the percentage of CRM failures in aviation accidents remained relatively flat (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2001). Although initial results of CRM programs have been found to be encouraging such that positive results were seen almost immediately after the conduction of the program, it was soon obvious that such results were short-lived (Taneja, 2002). What could have happened that prevented such interventions to perform as expected? Helmreich & Merritt (2000) offers an explanation Ã¢â¬â at least for CRM. First, not everybody responds to CRM training. Some may have become less accepting of CRM after the training. Although attitudes do not necessarily define behavior, it has been a well-known maxim that those who reject a concept are more likely not to follow the principles that it imparts. (Helmreich, Merritt & Wilhelm, 1999). Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 11 Culture Ã¢â¬â national, professional and organisational Ã¢â¬â is also a significant factor that determines the level of acceptance for a CRM concept (Helmreich & Merritt, 2000). When CRM was introduced to other national cultures, it soon became evident that certain CRM concepts can either be readily accepted or rejected depending on the national culture. Cultures such as China and many Latin American countries that stress the importance of absolute power and authority of their leaders will necessarily be less receptive to the idea of subordinates questioning the decisions of their leaders, than cultures that are less hierarchical (Hofstede, 1980 as cited by Helmreich, Merrit & Wilhelm, 1999). While CRM programs encourage subordinates to be more assertive in questioning their leaders, junior crew members in these cultures are quite disinclined to do this because of fear of showing disrespect. These same cultures are also collectivists who stress interdependenc and the necessity to work together for a common goal. In contrast, American and European cultures, which are highly individualistic, give more value to independence and more priority to individual goals. The value of teamwork and the need for coordination will most likely be readily accepted in the former than in the latter. There are also High Uncertainty Avoidance cultures like Greece, Korea and many Latin American countries that prefer CRM concepts already specifying required behaviors. Cultures that are low in Uncertainty Avoidance tend to be more flexible when it comes to behaviors but have difficulty adhering to standard operating procedures. Furthermore, this kind of culture, along with non-collectivist cultures are more questioning with regards to the usage of automation while High Uncertainty Avoidance and collectivist cultures accept the idea of automation usually without, or relatively less, questions. Intervention programs such as CRM should therefore not be patterned after a single national culture. From the discussion it can be seen above that autocratic cultures can also Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 12 value teamwork and interdependence than non-autocratic cultures (Helmreich, in press). Cultures exhibiting difficulty of adherence to SOPs may be more innovative when dealing with novel situations not covered by procedures. In contrast, cultures who stress strict adherence to rules may find it difficult to be more flexible in new situations. Although CRM programs require behavior modification, certain beliefs ingrained into a culture are quite difficult to modify. If CRM has to attain widespread global use, it has to design programs that are congruent to national culture and yet still enhances safety. Error management should therefore be embraced as a culture in itself. Focusing on threat and error management as goals, training programs should not aim for a total reversal of norms and beliefs but rather for a drawing out of positive behaviors without directly confronting national culture. Many professions, including aviation, have strong cultures and develop their own norms and values (Helmreich, in press). Each culture encompasses both positive and negative aspects. Aircrew for example has a high level of motivation and a strong sense of professional pride. The negative component, which is seen to be universal, is the inability to admit vulnerability to stressors. Majority of pilots in almost all national cultures agree that their decision-making abilities are not hampered by personal problems and that it is as good in emergency situations as in normal situations. Furthermore, most of these pilots have indicated that they do not make errors even while under stress. This Ã¢â¬Å"machoÃ¢â¬ culture, when left uncorrected, can lead to risk taking, failure to coordinate with other crew members and error. Indeed, one focus of the 5th generation CRM program is to help pilots acknowledge that human error does occur and they are more vulnerable to it if they continue to deny the existence and effect of stressors. As stated earlier, the organisational culture determines the principle of the organisation towards safety. One reason why CRM does not deliver results when it should is Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 13 the organisational context on which the program was delivered (Helmreich & Merritt, 2000). Organisations may have a highly evolved safety culture and possesses a positive outlook on safety. Such organisations will most likely benefit from CRM and other intervention strategies. Others react only to safety threats once they are looming while some organisations give perfunctory attention to safety issues without really embracing a safety culture that works towards a highly effective accident prevention program. The current process of investigating errors during accidents also contributes to the apparently limited success of intervention strategies. Most accident reporting systems are primarily technological and have been designed with little regard to human factors. Such systems are on their way to being perfected in terms of identifying mechanical failures but in itself is also a bit of a failure when it comes to assessment of human errors (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2001). An examination of an accident investigation process may help drive down the point. When an accident due to mechanical failure happens, investigators examine objective and quantifiable information such as that obtained from the flight data recorder. The data is processed and the probable causes of the accident are recorded so that safety recommendations can be identified. After the investigation, the data obtained is entered into a database which can be periodically accessed to provide feedback to investigators. The information in the database can also be used by funding organizations to determine which researches to fund. As a result, intervention strategies are further developed to prevent mechanical failure from happening or mitigate consequences once they do happen (Helmreich & Merritt, 2000). Either way, the number of accidents due to mechanical failures has been greatly reduced. Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 14 In contrast, investigations of accidents due to human errors produce results that are not tangible and are difficult to quantify. And because the studies of human factors came later than studies of mechanical failures, investigative techniques used in human error analysis are less refined than those used to assess engineering and design concerns. When these techniques are used to analyze accident data, the results are rarely very useful and safety issues cannot be readily addressed. Therefore any intervention strategy designed using this data is not assured of success. Taneja (2002) echoes this concern stating that human errors have been implicated in 70-80% of aircraft accidents demonstrating the very limited success of current intervention strategies and also proposes a solution: a holistic approach to intervention strategies. To date, most researches on human factors in aviation have focused on specific aspects of aircraft accident prevention. Sarter and Alexander (2000) have observed that current researches on human error focus mainly on three key aspects: the development of error classification schemes, the design of error-tolerant systems, and error prevention through improved design and additional training (as cited by Taneja, 2002). Because accident prevention is such a wide field of study, it is very possible that certain aspects have been missed out or overlooked. Error framework also abound as almost every human factor researcher comes up with his own error framework. With so many intervention strategies proposed by researchers and some even practiced in the industry, there have been inadequate attempts to integrate these strategies into a holistic solution. A holistic approach to intervention strategies involve looking at all the possible links to an aircraft accident in order to come up with an intervention that best fits an organisation. Basing on all the links, an organisation must assess in what area their weaknesses lie and determine if these need intervention. The intervention strategy to be used in a certain Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 15 organisation will therefore be customized according the weak links in the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s system. The two links that are directly related to aviation accidents are the aircraft and the aircrew. Although accidents due to mechanical failures have been greatly reduced to advancement in technology, there needs to be constant assessment of the aircraft in general and the human factors affecting the man-machine interface in particular (Taneja, 2002). Intervention strategies that can be applied to aircrew can be divided into two broad categories: selection and training. Ever since the knowledge that human factors contribute to aviation accidents, the selection process have been amended such that the pilots are not chosen based on technical skill alone but more so on their ability to coordinate with fellow aircrew, recognize their own errors and be willing to work with others to deal with these errors. Once chosen, the pilotÃ¢â¬â¢s training will have a great impact on his proficiency and possibly, on his ability to avoid accidents. Possible interventions on these two main links can have a major influence on the number of accidents encountered by the organisation. The process of accident investigation, although a secondary link, should also be looked into in for possible intervention strategies. To date there is no benchmark as to the training and expertise a safety investigator must have. In order for a standardised level of investigation to be achieved, there needs to be a minimum with regards to the exposure an investigator must have. The investigative tools that the safety investigator uses could also be subject to an intervention. As discussed earlier, investigation techniques for human errors are inadequate at present and needs further researches in order the reach the level of refinement of evaluative techniques for mechanical failures. The kinds of human errors as discussed by Wiegmann and Shappell (2001) while developing HFACS, are also links that could be used to come up with more effective Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 16 intervention strategies. Furthermore, autopsy results during aircraft accidents, although unable to prevent future accidents, can be used to design intervention strategies that will make an aircraft accident more survivable. Upon carefully assessing the links just mentioned and determining the areas that need intervention, it is recognized that the success of any strategy ultimately depends on the Organisational Safety Culture (Taneja, 2002). Toft (1989) defined an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s safety culture as Ã¢â¬Å"the set of norms, beliefs, attitudes and roles, social and technical practices that minimizes the exposure of the managers, employees and the general public to conditions considered dangerous or injuriousÃ¢â¬ (as cited by Taneja, 2002). Discussed in brief earlier, the way an organisation handles errors and error management strategies depend on its safety culture. A safety conscious organisation will not treat an accident as just another unavoidable circumstance but rather will focus its efforts in preventing future accidents from happening. A careful investigation that searches for the possible factors leading to the occurrence of the accident will be performed. Ideally, an organisation with a highly effective safety culture will aim to plug the hole in the Swiss cheese model before another opportunity for a catastrophe will be created (Reason, 1990 as cited by Taneja, 2002). Even organisations that have a sound safety culture however can still be plagued by errors caused by human limitations such as fatigue, severe workloads, inadequate training, poorly-maintained equipment and errors caused by the air traffic control which would consequently affect the aircrew and the organisation. Even if the organisation has tried to remove every conceivable active and latent failure, chance errors can still take place (Heimrich & Merritt, 2000). But every organisation is bound to have a loophole. Thus, constant monitoring of all aspects in the organisation , whether directly related to safety or not, is essential. Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 17 Because errors can arise from a variety of sources, any single intervention strategy, such as the CRM must not be taken as a panacea for eliminating error. CRM is only a tool that organisations use to perform error management. All intervention strategies have its limitation Ã¢â¬â the effects it will have on an organisation depends on the national culture, the strengths and weaknesses of the professional culture, and the organisational safety culture. Furthermore, the way the people at the frontline perceive the intervention strategy will affect the outcome of such a strategy. In summary, the study of human factors affecting aircraft accidents has fostered an abundance of researches in this field. With the conception of CRM almost three decades ago, numerous error frameworks and intervention strategies have been proposed and used. Unfortunately, such a plethora of studies have not created a significant reduction on human error-related aircraft accidents. Presumably because it is still a relatively young field, the researches need more focus and the intervention strategies need more refinement. Intervention strategies have to address differences in national, professional and organisational culture. It is also important that intervention strategies be customized to a certain organisation to ensure a greater amount of success. With the continuous development and improvement of researches in this field, there will bound to be a breakthrough in time, and the success that has long been sought will finally be at hand. Human Factors in Aviation 18. References Helmreich, R. L. (in press). Culture, threat and error: Assessing system safety. In Safety in Aviation: The Management Commitment: Proceedings of a Conference. London: Royal Aeronautical Society.Retrieved October 2, 2007 from http://homepage. psy. utexas. edu/HomePage/Group/HelmreichLAB/Publications/pubfiles/Pub257. pdf. Helmreich, R. L. & Merritt, A. C. (2000). Safety and error management. The role of Crew Resource Management. In B. J. Hayward and A. R. Lowe (Eds. ), Aviation Resource Management. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 107-119. Helmreich, R. L. Merritt, A. C. & Wilhelm, J. A. (1999). The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1):19-32. Reason, J. (2000). Human error: Models and management. BMJ, 320(7237): 768-770. Sexton, J. , Thomas, E. J. & Helmreich, R. L. (2000). Error, stress and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys. BMJ, 320:745-749. Taneja, N. (2002). Human factors in aircraft accidents: A holistic approach to intervention strategies. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from www. humanfactors. uiuc. edu/Reports&PapersPDFs/humfac02/tanejahf02. pdf. Thomas, M. J. W. (2004). Error management training: Defining best practice. ATSB Aviation Safety Research Grant Scheme Project 2004/0050. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from www. atsb. gov. au/publications/2004/pdf/error_management_training_best_practice. pdf. Wiegmann, D. A. & Shappell, S. A. (2003). A human error approach to aviation accident analysis. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Human Factors in Aviation Accidents 19 Wiegmann, D. A. & Shappell, S. A. (2001 February). A human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System [HFACS]. Office of Aviation Medicine. Retrieved October 2, 2007 from www. hf. faa. gov/docs/508/docs/cami/0103. pdf.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Pre-Induction Work. How To Ensure The Success Of Your Every Induction and Suggestion Before You Even Begin By William May Click Here To Become A Master Of Covert Hypnotic Influence In the study of hypnosis there are many elements that have been covered thoroughly. Certainly, any well informed student will be familiar with the need for a good pre-talk and the establishment of rapport, will have to be quite familiar with the process of inducing and deepening a trance, and, undoubtedly, with the deployment of the suggestions and commands that are, perhaps, the ultimate purpose for the creation of the trance state.Of course, the focus on the experience of trance itself, on creating, deepening, maintaining and utilizing that state, is the essence of our field, but to truly master this art, one must also understand far more about the creation of trance, and just how our interactions with a subject, even before any formal trance work begins. Our focus here, then, is on this initial phase of the hypnotic relationship. Now, clearly the pre-talk and rapport development fall into this stage, which we can call the pre-induction phase, but they are only one aspect of the work that can be done within this realm.Even before any mention of hypnosis is made, an informal preparation can begin. The subject can be conditioned towards responsiveness, while we can surreptitiously begin to calibrate to determine the style of hypnosis that will be most productive, and, of course, begin to establish the relationship that will allow this work to be done. Additionally, we might also utilize some basic covert hypnotic techniques to truly pre-induce the subject, such that by the time formal trance work begins, they are already in a light trance state and can easily be lead into a deep trance with minimal resistance.There are many possibilities that a competent hypnotist will utilize at this point in there interaction with a subject, and we cannot, certainly, discuss all of them here, but w e shall explore, and in so doing might raise new thoughts to lead us towards discovering further potentialities for just how the pre-induction phase might be utilized to enhance the hypnotic interaction for our subject, while making our job as hypnotist even easier. Ã © William May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com Let us begin with some minor points on what happens when a subject is first greeted and welcomed to our hypnotic arena.While my focus here is on therapeutic interactions, one can easily see how these same notions might translate to other contexts, whether it be on the street, in a theatre, or any other context. So, let us imagine that a client walks into the office for their first session. My preference is to meet them in the waiting room. This may seem, and indeed is, a minor point, but there is a reason for this. First, it does create a cordiality, as I can walk out, meet them with a warm smile and handshake, and then welcome them to come into my office.Additionally, I might find out a bit about the subject, whether they arrived alone, and if not, just who is with them; how they occupy their time whilst sitting in the waiting room, and their general demeanor. Many small details can be obtained through this simple gesture, whereas a subject might easily disguise some of their feelings upon entering the actual office, or, conversely, might feel an unease that they did not have as they waited. Such minor observations can be of extreme import. As an example, consider just how you might find it useful to know that your subject was reading a textbook on nursing versus a pulp novel.What might it say if they were, instead, playing a video game on there cell phone? These may be small details, but the awareness of such things can offer opportunities for metaphor(if your subject seems to be engrossed in a magazine on sports, for instance, you might weave a story that uses a sporting event as itÃ¢â¬â¢s focus), a point upon which to create rapport (Ã¢â¬Å"I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help but notice you are reading the new book by so-and-so, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve not read that, but I really enjoyed his XYZ, have you read that as well? Ã¢â¬ ).Consider, also, the middle aged man who arrives at the office in company of his Mother, or the subject who sits alone in the corner of the office, not doing anything but purposefully avoiding interaction with anyone else in the waiting room. Another reason for stepping out of the office to meet the client is that it provides a small opportunity for getting the subject acclimated to following instructions. Even the simple gestures of asking subject to follow you into the office and of telling them to take a seat offer an opportunity to establish a pattern of compliance in an extremely non-threatening way.Again, these are minor points, but by creating a directive aspect in the relationship at this point, we are laying the groundwork for compliance that will be built upon as we move into hypnosis. Ã © William May. www . masterhypnoticlanguage. com At this point, of course, we have our initial interview with the subject, and the main point that I would make in this portion is to discover and accept the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s frame. This is extremely Ericksonian, but accepting the frame, no matter its ridiculousness, is an extremely powerful stance to take as a hypnotist.To offer the most extreme example, let us suppose that a subject walks in and speaks immediately of how they have studied hypnosis, know that many hypnotists themselves acknowledge that the state does not exist, and are certain that they cannot be hypnotized. My response would be to say, Ã¢â¬Å"yes, you are quite right. Knowing as much as you do, you certainly are aware that some people have deficiencies that make it impossible for them to enter trance, and it is possible that you may be one of those people who just canÃ¢â¬â¢t relax enough to experience the wonderful possibilities of a hypnotic trance.Some people do have that problem, s adly, and it might just be so for you. Of course, until we do begin hypnosis, we wonÃ¢â¬â¢t really know if you are one of those unfortunate people who just canÃ¢â¬â¢t experience thisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Thus, without arguing the point, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve established a viewpoint that not being able to enter trance is a deficiency, while creating the possibility that they might be wrong. At this point, we can immediately change the subject to some other matter, letting that idea sink in even deeper.In this work through the frame rather than against it, and the subject will want to disagree with our viewpoint that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t enter trance, since it has been connected to Ã¢â¬Å"deficiencyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"problemsÃ¢â¬ , and will only be capable of resisting that suggestion through entering trance and changing the frame they entered with. At this point in the interaction, it can also be quite useful to begin using some minor suggestions, both to prime the subject for trance and, perhaps more importantly, to determine just how easily they respond.Simple comments can serve well to do this. For example, while gesturing towards a chair, you might comment, Ã¢â¬Å"that is a very comfortable seat, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to just sit back in it, take a nice deep breath, and relax. Ã¢â¬ The comment can be tossed out offhandedly, and you merely have to note whether the subject does respond or not. This is not intended to create the trance state (though with some subjects it is a good beginning), but it does allow us to begin noting how they respond.This can, for example, alert a savvy hypnotist to the potential for a polarity responder, when the subject responds in a way that is directly oppositional to the suggestion, or, conversely, to the suggestible and responsive subject who will easily respond by relaxing into that chair with a nice deep breath. Now, it should be noted that the suggestions can be far more subtle than this, but, as well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to recall Ã © William May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com hat the subject often is not aware enough of these techniques to notice even a somewhat overt comment of this sort. However, if you are wary of putting the subject on edge with a comment of this sort, one might use a suggestion that is not directed at relaxation, or by making an indirect suggestion by discussing how some of your other patients find it very easy to relax in that chair. The nature of the suggestion itself is not overly important here, the purpose is, as stated above, to establish a base line for responsiveness, as well as to develop that aspect of the interaction.This process of using small suggestions can be continued while progressing through the initial interview and pre-talk, allowing for calibration towards the type of suggestion that seems most effective. Some subjects will respond best to direct suggestions, while others seem more compliant when the suggestions are indirect. Learning this before hypnosis actually begins makes it possible for the savvy hypnotist to be far more effective and efficient.Instead of merely following a generic approach and tailoring it to the client during the hypnotic interaction itself, you already have much of the knowledge necessary for creating an impactful hypnotic pattern. Of course, this does not take the place of calibration during the actual hypnosis session, but it can allow the work to begin in a more practical and comfortable way for the subject. Additionally, one might, indeed, begin seeding useful suggestions at this point, a consideration that shall be discussed in more detail as we continue. At this point in the interaction, other forms of calibration can of course begin.For example, one might inquire about when a problem first emerged and make note of where the subject seems to look when referencing the past, and similarly asking questions about the present and future, can gain a notion of the overall timeline; one can determine, of course, submod al preferences, to best determine what type of imagery will be most impactful; indeed, depending upon the nature of your style and preferred techniques, it is possible to craft opportunities for noting various aspects of the clients behavior and perceptual maps which might be useful in cultivating a hypnotic response.In many cases all this requires is asking a question that accesses a certain process, and noting the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s response. Additionally, we might find opportunities for creating anchors. The simple suggestion offered above, connecting relaxation to the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s chair can serve, for instance, to connect the notion of relaxation with sitting in Ã © William May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com that position.Additionally, we might notice a certain response during questions about the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problem, a response that we feel could be useful to access again, and anchor this in whatever way seems appropriate so that we might recall it while the client is in trance. For instance, with a subject who suffers panic attacks, it might be that during the interview we share a small laugh, and might choose to anchor this, perhaps by leaning forward and touching the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s knee.Later, during the trance process, we might fire that anchor while having the client recall a recent panic attack, triggering a response to the experience that can help to move them past the problem. Even anchoring the problem state, so that we can access it in conjunction with other resources can be quite useful. For example, we might anchor the panic response described above, and later build an anchor for peaceful relaxation, then collapse the two anchors to help move past the problem.Thus, we can utilize pre-induction experiences as opportunities for the development of potentially useful knowledge and resources that can easily lead towards success when we do foray into more overtly hypnotic processes. Now, moving towards some of the more direct tactics, letÃ¢â ¬â¢s consider the pre-talk itself. The purposes of a pre-talk are many, and certainly we should all be familiar with the most basic of these, namely to inform our subject and to develop a level of comfort with the prospect of entering a hypnotic trance.Of course, the pre-talk, when handled properly, offers other opportunities, and can actually allow us to bridge into an initial hypnotic experience. What we are discussing here is a step beyond the generic use of various hypnotic tests, but instead a more directed approach designed to do precisely what the hypnotic pre-talk is intended for, by actually using the subjects own perceptions of hypnosis to create a light experience of trance. We are essentially going to ask just what the subject imagines trance will feel like, and what they will experience that will make them certain they are entranced.In asking these questions, however, we need to direct the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s answers so that they are most useful. Many times, a subject wi ll answer by imagining the responses they imagine they will experience, whether it be arm levitation or some other phenomenon they may have seen performed. This is not the type of answer we are seeking; instead the goal is to direct their imagination towards the sensory experience of what they imagine trance will be like.As you might already guess, this can easily transition into a full trance experience, simply by applying some revivification type techniques, amplifying that sensation that they have already imagined. Even more Ã © William May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com significantly, you are helping to establish a set of criteria that will make them certain that what they are experiencing really is trance. So many hypnotists forget at times that trance experiences are so normal to the uninitiated, so familiar to us all, that we can easily overlook them unless we have some type of deep hypnotic phenomenon.By using this type of technique, you establish a sense of what hypnosi s will feel like, so the subject will be setting up the criteria that guarantee they will recognize trance when it happens, and in so doing will begin to experience that feeling for the first time. At this point, you might just choose to let the subject go into a deeper trance directly, by merely amplifying the experience and allowing that sensation to build until it reaches the desired depth, or you can let them come back out, knowing that when you put them ack into trance it will be even deeper. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to recognize that this first experience is a trance, and at times you might even let them stay in a minor level of trance as you continue. Thus, you have many options for how you continue your work. Indeed, if there is one thing that pre-induction work allows, it is the development of new options you might not have considered, and it is this aspect that is most important.So many times youÃ¢â¬â¢ll meet a hypnotist who has a way of dealing with this problem, and a tactic for that problem, but when you begin to really explore the possibilities in the way that you can before you ever use any type of formal hypnosis, you allow yourself to learn more about what will really help this individual person. Ultimately, the goal is to discover the structure of a problem, the frames and beliefs that shape it, so that as you approach the real issue, you can do so in a way that will truly impact this subject.To offer an entertaining example, a young man of my acquaintance and I had corresponded for some time online, but had not spoken directly. When we did have our first conversation, he noted all the patterns I use in my speech, and was certain that I was trying to hypnotize him. No amount of argument on my part, or on the part of others present would dissuade him. He was convinced that my using language patterns was proof that I was hypnotizing him, and that he needed to keep his guard up or he would drop into trance.Now, this was his frame, and whene ver I argued contrary to it, he found evidence supporting his belief. So, instead of disagreeing with him, I chose to accept his belief, and said Ã¢â¬Å"okay, since you insist that I am already doing so, I will hypnotize you now. Ã¢â¬ Ã © William May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com His response was that he could not be hypnotized as long as he kept his guard up. At this point, my response was again to accept his frame, but to add to it, saying Ã¢â¬Å"yes, you have your guard up, but at some point you will relax, and these suggestions are already waiting inside your mind. Thus, the subject was given the choice to accept the suggestions now, or to do so later, and chose to go into trance straight away. While this example does deal more directly with getting a subject into trance, it points out many aspects that can offer great insight in this process. First, it reinforced how much more can be done when we do accept a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. If we argue with those beliefs, we d emonstrate a lack of understanding that can strain trust within the relationship.When we accept a frame, even a negative frame, we can work to move the subject out of it, or find a way, as in this example, to make that frame useful for moving forward. Thus, it is important, when doing your initial interview with the subject, to become aware of the beliefs they hold about the issueÃ¢â¬â¢s being dealt with, hypnosis, and various other factors you deem relevant to the creation of a successful experience for your client. Listen to your subject closely, noting presuppositions, as well as direct statements about belief.For example, if a person makes a comment Ã¢â¬Å"oh, even I can do that,Ã¢â¬ it clearly illustrates a limiting belief. Often it is not in the direct statements of beliefs that we uncover the frame from which the subject is operating, but in the implications of what they say that we truly get a glimpse at the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s belief structure. Knowing a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s re ality, it becomes much simpler to devise a therapeutic intervention that will have success. As mentioned above, my preference is to accept that frame and work within it to create change.Often we can add conditions to that frame, as with the client who has difficulty with giving up cigarettes who acknowledges that they will have difficulty with that process. We can acknowledge that this is true, while still adding stipulations that will make it easier: Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, a person can have difficulty with quitting cigarettes, until they are taught the right resources for that process. Ã¢â¬ Thus, we frame that our interaction will teach the subject resources to make that quitting process easier, without conflicting the knowledge the client has of their current experience.In the end, the real truth is that we need to view the work we do with a client before formal trance as having just as much complexity (and often, just as many hypnotic components) as in the more formal aspects of Ã © Wil liam May. www. masterhypnoticlanguage. com our work. By recognizing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, apprehensions, beliefs, and goals, we are far better equipped to create a positive experience for them, while, as well, we can also take advantage of the pre-induction period to frame our interaction, build resources that we will later use, and even egin the use of suggestion. We can take this even further, by creating mild trance states through informal techniques, and continuing our work with the client already beginning to experience trance as an organic response. When you truly listen to the subject, and pay attention to all the things which occur before the induction, the options that are available expand in ways you might already imagine, and your accuracy in selecting the proper course of action will increase greatly with this new found information and the flexibility it promotes.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Writing an article review, which is also sometimes referred to as an article critique, is a special type of writing that involves reading an article and then providing the reader with your personal take on its content. In general, article review essays should start with a heading that includes a citation of the sources that are being reviewed. The first paragraph, which is the introduction to the article review, should provide a summary of the article highlights. This summary should not provide every last detail about the article being reviewed. Rather, it should only discuss the most important details. If you find yourself carrying on or needing more than one paragraph to write your summary, you need to revisit the paragraph and find ways to trim down the length of your summary. Following the brief summary of your article, you will then need to explain why the article is significant. Questions you should ask yourself when writing these paragraphs include: Does the article fill a void within the literature that already exists on the topic? Does the article contain any information that would be considered Ã¢â¬Å"breakthroughÃ¢â¬ information? Will the information contained within this article cause other people in the field to change their ideas about the subject matter or does it simply revisit information that is already known in the field? In your final paragraphs, you will need to present your personal evaluation of the article. Some questions you should ask yourself in order to come up with your personal evaluation include whether or not the article is well written and clear. You should also consider whether or not any information was missing and if more research is needed on the topic. If you are writing the article review for a class, try to connect the article to organizational and industrial experience and try to connect the content of the article to information that you have been studying in your course. As you write your article review, keep in mind that you are doing more than just a book report. Rather than focus on telling what the article was about, your article review should reflect your personal opinions on the article as well as how it affects you or the field in which it was written. After you have finished writing your article review, be sure to go back and re-read it. This way, you will be able to look at it with a fresh set of eyes and you may notice errors that you had not previously noticed. Outline of the Article Review Please include the following categories in your article review. Full Bibliographic Reference Introduction: Objectives, Article Domain, Audience, Journal and Conceptual/Emprical Classification Very Brief Summary Results Contributions Foundation Synthesis with other materials Analysis & Additional Analysis General Critique) Further Critique of a Conceptual Article -or- Further Critique of an Empirical Article Issues (in your opinion). Questions Annotated Bibliography Citation Analysis Appendix 1. Full Bibliographic Reference State the full bibliographic reference for the article you are reviewing (authors, title, journal name, volume, issue, year, page numbers, etc. ) Important: this is not the bibliography listed at the end of the article, rather the citation of the article itself! 2. Introduction: Objectives, Article Domain, Audience, Journal and Conceptual/Emprical Classification Paragraph 1: State the objectives (goals or purpose) of the article. What is the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s domain (topic area)? Paragraph 2: State whether the article is Ã¢â¬Å"conceptualÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"empiricalÃ¢â¬ , and why you believe it is conceptual or empirical. Empirical articles and conceptual articles have a similar objective: to substantiate an argument proposed by the author. While a conceptual article supports such an argument based on logical and persuasive reasoning, an empirical article offers empirical evidence to support the argument. Empirical articles offer substantial, detailed evidence which the authors analyze using statistical methods. Empirical articles must include hypotheses (or propositions), detailed research results, and (statistical) analyses of this empirical evidence. Empirical research includes experiments, surveys, questionnaires, field studies, etc, and to limited degree, case studies. Conceptual articles may refer to such empirical evidence, but do not provide the detailed analysis of that evidence. 3. Brief Summary For an article review, do not spend much space summarizing the article. Instead focus on analysis of the article. Thus, in this section, summarize the article only very briefly. Paragraph 1: what is the problem or opportunity being addressed Paragraph 2: which solution is proposed (the solution could be a new model or a theory that explains the problem) Paragraph 3: what evidence is put forth that this solution is appropriate (If this is an empirical article, be sure to briefly describe what kind of empirical study was done as part of the evidence) 4. Results Very briefly summarize the important points (observations, conclusions, findings) in the article. Please do not repeat lists of items in the articles Ã¢â¬â just summarize the essence of these if you feel they are necessary to include. 5. Contributions. An article makes a Ã¢â¬Å"contributionÃ¢â¬ by adding to the knowledge of researchers in a research field. An article can make a contribution to the research field in many ways. Does it provide a new way to look at a problem? Does it bring together or Ã¢â¬Å"synthesizeÃ¢â¬ several concepts (or frameworks, models, etc. ) together in an insightful way that has not been done before? Does it provide new solutions? Does it provide new results? Does it identify new issues? Does it provide a comprehensive survey or review of a domain? Does it provide new insights? Also, is it salient (relevant and current) to a particular scientific issue or managerial problem? Are the issues addressed introduced in a way that their relevance to practice is evident? Would answers to the questions raised in the article likely to be useful to researchers and managers? Note: Do not discuss the contributions of the technologies the article describes, but rather the contributions of the article itself! The articleÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions should be original. Describe each contribution clearly in a separate paragraph or bullet point. Discuss why the contribution is important. Alternatively, if you believe the article makes no contributions, explain why clearly. 6. Foundation. Good research often is built upon theories and frameworks that other researchers have developed. Sometimes articles will be substantially based upon this prior work, and refer back to it in some detail. (Not all research articles will do this. ) Which theoretical foundations does this article and research build on, if any? In what ways? Include references/citations of the foundation work. (You can determine this in part from the works the article cites. )Note, however, that most works cited are not core foundational work, but rather just support certain aspects of the article. Similarly, do not confuse a general discussion of related topics as foundational work. If the article does not build upon key pieces of prior research, then write in your review Ã¢â¬Å"This article does not build upon any foundation research. Ã¢â¬ (If you do not state this explicitly, you will not receive credit for this section. ) 7. Synthesis with Class Materials Synthesis means analyzing a particular topic by comparing and contrasting it with, and thinking about it from the viewpoint of, the class materials from across the semester. These materials include the articles, models, frameworks, guidelines and other concepts weÃ¢â¬â¢ve covered. (Of course, only certain materials will be relevant for any given article. )Note: You have to do this synthesis! You need to relate this article to other things we have studied, so by definition you will not find this analysis in the article itself! You also could analyze the approach the author took to the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis and discussion. Discuss the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s approach and results in terms of one or more of the frameworks, etc. , from the text or readings, or any you find elsewhere. As part of this analysis, reference other articles youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read, when appropriate. Compare the approach, results and contribution with all articles about similar topics or with a similar approach. For all of these, do your synthesis comparison in as much depth as you can! 8. Analysis Note: Many people assume this category is the same as Ã¢â¬Å"General CritiqueÃ¢â¬ . It is not. General Critique is a different category from this, and follows below. What has changed since the article was written? How do itÃ¢â¬â¢s lessons, ideas and theories still apply? To what extent has its issues been resolved? Additional Analysis Optionally, try applying the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s models, frameworks and guidelines, etc. yourself. Do you find them useful? In addition, you may optionally add your own additional analysis in a separate subsection. (Do not repeat the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis in the paper Ã¢â¬â you could summarize this as part of the results section. ) 9. General Critique In this section you should state your opinions of how well (or poorly) the authors did their research and presented the research results in the article. Your critique can contain both positive and negative comments. Justify and explain in detail each of your critique points in a separate paragraph of at least 4-5 sentences. The following are suggestions only: Does it build upon the appropriate foundation (i. e. , upon appropriate prior research)? Did the authors choose the correct approach, and then execute it properly? How confident are you in the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s results, and why? Are its ideas really new, or do the authors simply repackage old ideas and perhaps give them a new name? Do the authors discuss everything they promise in the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction and outline? What are the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s shortcomings (faults) and limitations (boundaries)? Did it discuss all of the important aspects and issues in its domain (topic area)? In what way should the article have made a contribution, but then did not? Do the authors make appropriate comparisons to similar events, cases or occurrences? How complete and thorough a job did the authors do? Do the authors include an adequate discussion, analysis and conclusions? Did they justify everything adequately? Did they provide enough background information for the intended audience to understand it? For you to understand it? Were there adequate and appropriate examples and illustrations? Ask yourself these questions when justifying your critique points: why/why not? how? what distinguishes the differences/different approaches, and in what ways? 9. 1. Further Critique of a Conceptual Article (only for conceptual articles) A critique of a conceptual article examines the logic of the arguments made by the authors. Both strengths and weaknesses should be identified in a critique. Explain and justify each of your critique points in at least 3-4 sentences. Give examples whenever possible. To the best of your abilities, discuss each of the following categories in a separate paragraph: 1. LOGICAL CONSISTENCY: Do any parts of the article or research contradict or invalidate other parts? If so, have the authors acknowledged and explained this adequately? 2. COHERENCE: Does the article make sense? Did the authors approach this article (and this research) sensibly? Does the article develop an argument that follows a coherent line of reasoning? Are the boundaries of the argument reasonably well defined? Does the argument anticipate most, if not all, rival arguments? Does the article flow in a logical sequence? Do later parts build logically upon earlier parts? 3. SUBSTANCE: Does the article provide an argument or a line of reasoning that offers insight into important issues, or does it merely summarize previous studies in a shallow way that does not reflect depth of analysis? Does the article provide ways (a model, framework, guidelines, etc. ) to guide future thinking about the issue(s) the author is addressing? 4. FOCUS: Is there a clear audience that the authors address? Was the article written at the appropriate level for this audience? 9. 2. Further Critique of an Empirical Article (only for empirical articles) A critique of an empirical article examines the strength of the empirical evidence supporting the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Both strengths and weaknesses should be identified in a critique. Explain and justify each of your critique points in at least 3-4 sentences. To the best of your abilities, discuss each of the following categories in a separate paragraph: 1. CLARITY: Is the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose and argument clear? Do the researchers clearly develop a major research question, proposition, or hypothesis that is to be evaluated in the empirical study and discussed in this article? If the study is exploratory (preliminary), is sufficient justification for an exploratory strategy given? 2. THEORETICAL GROUNDING: Is the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s argument grounded in more basic theory? Is it clear whether the structure of the empirical study (i. e., what they do) was derived from theory, or just made up? In theory-building articles, is the need for new theory adequately established? 3. DESIGN OF RESEARCH INVESTIGATION: Is it clear exactly how the empirical study was carried out? Is the design of the research approach (field study, experiments, questionnaires, etc. Ã¢â¬â both contents and how they will be used) adequate to address the common threats to internal and external validity? Have appropriate controls been established, and is the selection of research sites justified? Are the hypotheses and experiments, etc., significant? 4. MEASUREMENT: Empirical studies can have quantitative measurements (i. e. , numeric results) and qualitative or subjective measurements. Are the measures used adequately described (i. e. , what is measured in the study and how)? Are data on the reliability and validity of these measures reported? Does the article feel anecdotal or solidly supported with evidence? For example, in case or field studies, are the results well documented? Is it clear who the subjects were, and with whom interviews were carried out? Were important results cross-checked, i. e., determined across a range of subjects or just gotten from one or two subjects? 5. ANALYSIS: Is the analysis of empirical data conducted properly? Do the data conform to the requirements of any statistical tests used? Are qualitative data adequately described and presented? 6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: In discussing the results of the empirical study, do the authors remain true to the actual findings of the study? Are the claims made in the conclusion of the article actually supported by the empirical data? If the study is exploratory, do the authors offer research questions or hypotheses for future research? 7. BIASES: Do the biases of the authors affect the design of the research or the interpretation of the results? Are the authors aware of potential biases and the affect on the study? 10. Issues (listed by the author) What open questions or issues has the author stated remain unresolved? Discuss each in a separate paragraph of 5-10 sentences. Each issueÃ¢â¬â¢s paragraph should take the following format: what is the issue? why do you believe this is an important issue? in what way is it unresolved suggestions for resolving it Ã¢â¬â if you give your own suggestions (instead of or in addition to the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢, then precede each with Ã¢â¬Å"I would propose Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ If it has been resolved since the article was written, then state how it was resolved. 11. Issues (in your opinion) List several open questions or issues which remain unresolved in your opinion? For example, what possible future research questions could arise from this article? Discuss each in a separate paragraph of 5-10 sentences. Each issueÃ¢â¬â¢s paragraph should take the following format: what is the issue? why do you believe this is an important issue? in what way is it unresolved suggestions for resolving it 12. Questions List three insightful questions of your own, arising from this article. Do not ask definitions, but rather questions that really make one think. 13. Annotated Bibliography For every item you have cited in your report, you need a full reference and an annotation explaining it. List the full bibliographic references (authors, title, journal name, volume, issue, year, page numbers, etc. ) for anything you have cited in your review. IMPORTANT: This is NOT the bibliography listed at the end of the article. It is the bibliographic references for any readings you yourself referred to inside your review. Write 2-4 sentences describing the article. Write 2-3 sentences describing why you cited it. 14. Citation Analysis Appendix If the article has no citations then write in that section Ã¢â¬Å"I found no citations in the [Science Citation Index or the Social Sciences Citation Index or on the Internet]. Ã¢â¬ Note, if your article has more than 20 citations, you only need to include a selection of them: State how many citations each index has and the Web search found List 1-2 citations for each year in which the article has been cited. Try to include citations from several different journals spread over your selection ? Include a citation analysis to see who has cited it and how.