Saturday, August 31, 2019
Almost stresses and difficulties of modern life are caused by high density of working when people face to hard problems in daily working. It seems to me that the best ways to reduce the stress is playing sports to relax and think wisely to find the best solution to overcome the difficulties. According to me, playing sports is the best way to relax and release the stress. When you get the stress it means that your body is tired and your brain is no longer sober. In that case playing sports gives you not only good physical health but also sober mind. Moreover, playing sports help you extricate yourself from negative thinking because when you focus in the game you always think positive therefore you will get fresh mental powers. In my case, whether I feel stressed or not, I always play my favorite sports at the weekend. In summer I choose swimming, in winter I choose table tennis or badminton. To me, playing sports at the weekend helps me free all the strains of the passing week and give me more power for the coming week. Along with the way that I have mentioned above, in order to get out of the difficulties, one more thing you should do is to think wisely and try to find the best solution for hard problem that you are facing to. When getting into hard problems, people tend to work continuously for very long time without a break and they think with high density of working will help them escape the hard situation. They are wrong, because the more they are tired the less their brain is intelligent. In my opinion, in that case they should reduce their work and think in another way before continue. For example, they had better discuss and share this problem with other friends and co-workers, more people have more ideas and the best idea will help them to solve the hard problem. Taking all above discussions into account, it seems very clear that playing sports is the most effective way for combating stress and thinking wisely is the most positive way to solve the difficulties.
An ostrich cannot fly, but it is able to run fast. Suppose an ostrich runs east for 7. 985 s and then runs 161 m south, so that the magnitude of the ostrichÃ¢â¬â¢s resultant displacement is 226 m. Calculate the magnitude of the ostrichÃ¢â¬â¢s eastward component and its running speed to the east. 1. Kangaroos can easily jump as far as 8. 0 m. If a kangaroo makes five such jumps westward, how many jumps must it make northward to have a northwest displacement with magnitude of 68 m? What is the angle of the resultant displacement with respect to north? . In 1926, Gertrude Ederle of the United States became the first woman to swim across the English Channel. Suppose Ederle swam 25. 2 km east from the coast near Dover, England, then made a 90o turn and traveled south for 21. 3 km to a point east of Calais, France. What was EderleÃ¢â¬â¢s resultant displacement? 3. Cheetahs are, for short distances, the fastest land animals. In the course of a chase, cheetahs can also change direction very quickly. Suppose a cheetah runs straight north for 5. 0 s, quickly turns and runs 3. 0 x 102 m west. If the magnitude of the cheetahÃ¢â¬â¢s resultant displacement is 3. 35 x 102 m, what is the cheetahÃ¢â¬â¢s displacement and velocity during the first part of its run? 4. The largest variety of grasshopper in the world is found in Malaysia. These grasshoppers can measure almost a foot in length and can jump 4. 5m. Suppose one of these grasshoppers starts at the origin of a coordinate system and makes exactly eight jumps in a straight line that makes and angle of 35o with the positive x-axis.Find the grasshopperÃ¢â¬â¢s displacements along the x and y axes. 5. The landing speed of the space shuttle Atlantis is 347 km/h. If the shuttle is landing at an angle of 15. 0o with respect to the horizontal, what are the horizontal and vertical components of its velocity? 6. The fastest propeller-driven aircraft is the Russian TU-95/142, which can reach a maximum speed of 925 km/h. Fo r this speed, calculate the planeÃ¢â¬â¢s resultant displacement if it travels east for 1. 50 h, then turns north and travels for 2. 00 h. 7.The longest shot in a golf tournament was made by Mike Austin in 1974. The ball went a distance of 471 m. Suppose the ball was shot horizontally off a cliff at 80. 0 m/s. Calculate the height of the cliff. 8. What would be the initial speed of a projectile that is launched from a cliff 210 m high and hits the ground 420 m away from the cliff? 10. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest flowerpot is 1. 95 m high. If you were to jump horizontally from the top edge of this flowerpot at a speed of 3. 0 m/s, what would your landing speed be?
Friday, August 30, 2019
The Sociological Investigation ~ These notes are taken and adapted from Macionis, John J. (2012). Sociology (14th Edition). Boston: Pearson Education Inc. There are two basic requirements for sociological investigation:Know how to apply the sociological perspective or paradigms or what C. Wright Mills termed as the Ã¢â¬Å"sociological imagination. Ã¢â¬ Be curious and ready to ask questions about the world around you. There are three ways to do Sociology. These three ways are considered as research orientations:A. Positivist Sociology Positivist sociology studies society by systematically observing social behaviour.Also known as scientific sociology.It includes introducing terms like independent variable, dependent variables, correlation, spurious correlation, control, replication, measurement, cause and effect, as well as operationalizing a variable1.Positivist sociology requires that researcher carefully operationalize variables and ensuring that measurement is both reliable and valid.It observes how variables are related and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationships. It sees an objective reality Ã¢â¬Å"out there. Ã¢â¬ Favours quantitative data (e. g. data in numbers; data from surveys).Positivist sociology is well-suited to research in a laboratory.It demands that researchers be objective2 and suspend their personal values and biases as they conduct research.There are at least FOUR limitations to scientific / positivist sociology.Positivist sociology is loosely linked to the structural-functional appr oach / paradigm / perspective.B. Critical Sociology Critical sociology uses research to bring about social change. It asks moral and political questions.It focuses on inequality.Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable (Macionis: 2012, p. 50).Personal neutrality in conducting research (Macionis: 2012, p. 50)It rejects the principle of objectivity, claiming that ALL researches are political. Critical sociology corresponds to the social-conflict approach / paradigm / perspective.C. Interpretive Sociology Interpretive sociology focuses on the meanings that people attach to their behaviour. It sees reality as constructed by people in the course of their everyday lives.It favours qualitative data (e. g. data acquired through interviews).It is well-suited to research in a natural setting.Interpretive sociology is related to the symbolic-interaction approach / paradigm / perspective. Gender and Research Gender3, involving both researcher and subjects , can affect research in five ways:Androcentricity (literally, Ã¢â¬Å"focus on the maleÃ¢â¬ )OvergeneralisingGender blindnessDouble standardsInterference Research EthicsResearchers must consider and do the following things when conducting research:Protect the privacy of subjects / respondents.Obtain the informed consent of subjects / respondents.Indicate all sources of funding.Submit research to an institutional review board to ensure it does NOT violate ethical standards.There are global dimensions to research ethics.Before beginning research in another country, an investigator must become familiar enough with that society to understand what people there are likely to regard as a violation of privacy or a source of personal danger.Research and the Hawthorne Effect Researchers need to be aware that subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ or respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour may change simply because they are getting special attention, as one classic experiment revealed. Refer to Elton MayoÃ¢â¬â¢s investig ation into worker productivity in a factory in Hawthorne, near Chicago. 3 The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male (Macionis: 2012, p. 50).The term Hawthorne Effect is defined as a change in a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour caused simply by the awareness that s/he is being studied. Methods: Strategies for Doing Sociological ResearchThere are the basic FOUR methods:A. Experiment This research method allows researchers to study cause-and-effect relationships between two or more variables in a controlled setting.Researchers conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis, a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more variables).This research method collects mostly quantitative data.Example of an experiment: Philip ZimbardoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Stanford County Prison. Ã¢â¬ o Advantages Provides the greatest opportunity to specify cause-and-effect relationships. Replication of research is relatively / quite easy. Limitations Labo ratory settings have an artificial quality to it. Unless the lab environment is carefully controlled, results may be biased too.B. Survey and/or Interview This research method uses questionnaires or interviews to gather subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ / respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to a series of questions.Surveys usually yield or produce descriptive findings, painting a picture of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views on some issues.This research method collects mostly qualitative data.Example of a survey: Lois BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s research on the effects of racism on African American men and women.She chose to interview subjects / respondents rather than distribute a questionnaire. o Advantages Sampling, using questionnaires, allows researchers to conduct surveys of large populations or a large number of people. Interviews provide in-depth responses. o Limitations Questionnaires must be carefully prepared so that the questions and instructions are clear and not confusing. Questionnaires may yield low response / r eturn rate from the target respondents. Interviews are expensive and time-consuming.C. Participant observation Through participant observation, researchers join with people in a social setting for an extended period of time.Researchers also play two roles, as a participant (overt role) and as an observer (covert role).This method allows researchers an Ã¢â¬Å"inside lookÃ¢â¬ at a social setting.This research method is also called fieldwork.Since researchers are not attempting to test a specific hypothesis, their research is exploratory and descriptive.This participant observation research method collects qualitative data.Example of participant observation: William Foote WhyteÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Street Corner Society. o Advantages It allows for the study of Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ behaviour. Usually inexpensive. o Limitations Time-consuming. Replication of research is difficult. Researcher must balance role of participant and observer.D. Existing or Secondary sources Researchers analyse existing sources, data which had been collected by others.This research method is also called library research or archive research.By using existing or secondary sources, especially the widely available data by government agencies, researchers can save time and money.Existing sources are the basis of historical research. Example of using existing sources:E. Digby BaltzellÃ¢â¬â¢s award-winning study Ã¢â¬Å"Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia. Ã¢â¬ How could it be, Baltzell wondered, during a chance visit to Bowdein College in Maine, USA, that this small college had graduated more famous people in a single year than his own, much bigger University of Pennsylvania had graduated in its entire history? o Advantages Saves time, money and effort of data collection. Makes historical research possible. o Limitations Researcher has no control over possible biases in data. Data may only partially fit current research needs.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
First - Why I know I am not in the Matrix - Term Paper Example As a means of integrating with the plot and philosophical subthemes of The Matrix, this particular analysis will seek to engage the reader with a well balanced understanding for why it is obvious that the life that each and every individual experiences is not a type of virtual or coded reality. In order to integrate with the question of what is Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ and what is Ã¢â¬Å"a subjective viewpointÃ¢â¬ , it is necessary to discuss the way in which the theme of The Matrix can adequately be defined with respect to the way in which Descartes discussed reality and what made humans certain of anything. Descartes viewed the subjectivity of the human experience, the question of reality, and the fact that no understanding or knowledge Ã¢â¬â even any expectation Ã¢â¬â could be made with regards to the existence of something beyond our own world. However, rather than letting this be a determination for the fact that all reality is subjective and could possibly be a clever illusio n on the part of a twisted higher power, Descartes determined that the best approach to this question of reality was the famous quote, Ã¢â¬Å"I think therefore I amÃ¢â¬ . ... In other words, if in fact some type of computer simulation of reality helped to define the world and laid a framework for the way in which humans thought and interacted with one another, it is only logical to assume that this very same construct would not allow for independent thought with regards to considering the truth of reality. Thus, utilizing this train of logic, the individual can firmly come to an understanding that if in fact a computer simulation, far and above beyond the capabilities of humans to infer, understand, or replicate, was indeed somehow invisibly in charge of the dynamics of our own reality, any such doubt and/or consideration for such a fact would be highly discourage and ruled insane (Johnsen 227). However, as has been noted in the past several decades, consideration for such a topic has not been distanced to the outer realms of possibility and in fact has even been represented to the individual participant within society in the form of movies, artwork, grap hic novels, and discussions within the philosophical community. Another reason why the individual should not integrate with the belief that the Ã¢â¬Å"brain is in a vatÃ¢â¬ or that all reality is merely a construct that is carefully designed is the fact that such an approach is inherently non-falsifiable (Smoyak 9). Naturally, even a cursory level of understanding with regards to the scientific method or philosophical understanding should lead the individual to understand that a non-falsifiable theory is in and of itself unacceptable. The ultimate reason for this is that each and every theory must be able to stand upon its merit and not based upon a caveat of inherent truth. In such a way, the belief that all
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Nuclear Power - Research Paper Example Energy experts build huge dams in order to seize the water, which generates hydropower energy. Consequently, these constructions disrupt flow of rivers, which further result to plausible natural calamities for example, overflows in rivers. In addition, the construction of dams facilitates the impediment of natural flow of sediments in the river. Variably, the impediment results to rivers losing their banks. Moreover, individuals lose their existence because of the evictions, which follow the construction of the dams (Murray 2009). Development of nuclear power facilitates the following consequences: first, from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster an individual depicts that the power supply in a nuclear plant suffers susceptibility of disability. For example, the machinery at Fukushima experienced a major nuclear accident because of the consequent chilling of the elements of retort. In addition, there are usually, constant releases of radioactive materials, which poison such paramount phenomenon as rivers (Bodansky 2004). Variably, contaminated waters from the plants leak out and cause melanoma and other precarious ailments to individuals. However, the Fukushima Nuclear Plant presents such advantages as generation of a significant high amount of energy from that single plant. Consequently, the plant does not release green house gases, which result to negative aftermaths of worldwide warming. Clearly, unconventional sources of power produce harmful green houses gases hence causing mountains to lose their snowing abilities (Bodansky 2004). Second, the Chernobyl Nuclear Meltdown released twenty five percent of radioactive reactor materials. Additionally, the historical accident registers deaths of individuals and continuous re-settlement of people who lived around that area. Further, there were various psychological impacts on the people who experienced the Chernobyl accident (Bodansky 2004). Although
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Obama Administration Budget - Essay Example that America has witnessed over the last several years." President Obama also reiterated his pledge to cut the deficit in half over the next five years. (Keck, et. al., 2009). The economic recession that America is presently experiencing is being suffered from coast to coast.Ã Families, small businesses, and family farmers are struggling to make ends meet.Ã People are tightening their belts and making difficult budget decisions In order to survive,.Ã Likewise, Americans expect their government to do the same.Ã Sadly, the recent budget plan released by the Obama administration failed to meet the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations.Ã In this time of widespread unemployment and the budgets of families and small businesses are tight, ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s outrageous budget outlines a $1.4 trillion tax raise in order to pay for enormous new government spending.Ã Some Americans believe that this budget is not the answer.Ã The tax increases it calls for would hurt small businesses, kill jobs, and further prolong our economic downturn (Wicker, 2009). Universal Tax Hike: ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s budget plan aims to expand the size and scope of the federal government in every phase of our economy.Ã Under this plan, spending would be maximized.Ã Before the country entered this recession, our national debt was about 40 percent of our gross domestic product (GDP).Ã Drastic increase in government spending and nationalizing things like healthcare and student loans, this budget blueprint would deliver the biggest European-style Socialism that we have ever seen in the country. Instead of guiding our country out of this recession by outlining a plan that would put more money into the hands of taxpayers and job creators, ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s budget would increase taxes on every American, stifling investment and job creation at a time when our country greatly needs both.Ã The budget asserts to increase taxes only on Ã¢â¬Å"the rich,Ã¢â¬ but in reality the burden would fall on the small businesses that create 70 percent of
Monday, August 26, 2019
MACROECONOMIC - Essay Example It has also seen that the market and business of the country getting to have a sense of decency and accountability. The banks major role is to regulate the money or the Australian currency. It is also responsible for the management of other banks. In essence the RBA has a regulatory role in the Australian economy rather than profit making like other banks. The absence of this bank could have seen a scenario was prices of commodities rise insignificantly and no one has control over them. Financial institutions could have also been free to impose any interest rates and totally create a situation of anarchy in the economy. It is then necessary that we keenly look at the role of the RBA in the economy of Australia. The role of the RBA Though the reserve bank can play several other roles there are three major roles that can be sidelined in the study of the functions of the RBA to the economy of Australia. These roles are. ... Interest rates are a significant and basic thing that loaners look at before they can take a lone from the bank. The RBA then plays a very basic role of regulating the availability of money in the economy to be borrowed, these is done by the bank regulating and defining the general cost rate of interest in the whole banking sector. These are ideally achieved through the domestic market operations (RBO). In these case then the bank is responsible for the granting of government securities, these securities are like the treasury notes and also the treasury bonds. These two will directly influence the general interest rate of the banks. Maintenance of employment Unemployment is one key factor in the determination of the economic status of a country. Unemployment is majorly or in most cases high when inflation is high. With the prices of commodities being high and purchase power of citizen being low then a situation presents itself were many employees will not employ more workers or in ev en other case downsize there labor force. The RBA has a major role of regulating inflation by ensuring that it remains at a very low value. This low inflation is very critical in marginalizing prices in the market and thus the purchase power remains high. These unable more people to get employed and thus in such a case the RBA is playing a very critical role of maintaining employment. Ensuring economic prosperity Finally the RBA has a very major role of developing the economy of Australia. From the roles it plays it ensures that there is stability in the currency of Australia. A stable currency is a very good indicator of economy growth. When the currency is strong against other international currencies then the economy
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Explain how the Bank of England tries to manage inflation and discuss whether the Quantitative Easing Programme may cause higher - Essay Example The rate of inflation of the economy is jumping high. Financial analysts quote this rate of inflation as an all time high. The Bank has constantly failed to maintain the rate of inflation which has been prescribed by the government (Dimsdale, 2009). The Bank may blame the cause of the increasing inflation on external factors, but the problem mainly arose because to deal with this situation the Bank started printing money. The printing of money was not backed by gold reserves held by the Bank. Apart from this the quantity of Bank notes printed was in a very large amount (IEA, 2013). The bank is of the view that it has done the right thing. By doing this the bank has breached the government instructions of maintaining a 2% inflation rate but has successfully managed to maintain an annual rate of 5-7%. The Bank claims that this policy will ease of the debt payment. EXPLAINING THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND The argument of the Bank of its actions can not be catered by the common rational of an individual. This is because no rational economy would take such an action. Printing so many currency notes will prove to be a hole in the economy. Printing extra notes will always result in more inflation then before. The rise in the inflation rate will prove to be beneficial for a few of the citizens. The rise in the inflation rate will impact the individuals as an additional tax implemented on them. The individuals will feel a prominent squeeze in the prices when paying of the utility bills or consumable goods. The government has eased the individual by implementing several tax cuts by decreasing costs and fuel prices, etc (Bell, Martyn, & Stanton, 2012). The complete economy is facing a problem of rising inflation. This is causing a problem because there are financial crisis rising due to the upcoming recession. The economy needs to deal with the situations accordingly. If it fails to do so then the people of that economy would be facing huge problems. This is the reason why it has become necessary for the economy to use quantitative easing. This will raise the flow of funds within the society. By taking these actions the economy can survive the effects of recession (Anderson, Gascon, & Liu, 2010). The result of quantitative easing will be rising amounts of inflation and hence devaluing the real value of the currency. This action taken by the Bank of England will raise the inflation of the country due to the devaluation of the currency. The set of standards of the government are not being followed appropriately, in this case, and for this reason the economy has a low annual inflation rate but the instant rate of inflation is high. The debt repayment of the economy can also be done easily to reduce the debt of the economy. Quantitative ease is the process which is used to manage and reduce the debt instantly. The rationale behind this action will ensure that the economy will become successful in eliminating the debt but the currency will deval ue resulting in a higher inflation rate (Breedon, Chadha, & Waters, 2012; Cobham & Kang, 2011). Any central bank which does not want inflation to occur will not use the qualitative pricing technique to cover up with the shortage of the funds. The usage of the printing of currency notes will surely result in a higher inflation rate (de Rezende, 2011). QUANTITATIVE EASING When the standard
Saturday, August 24, 2019
SPORT DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMMUNITY - Assignment Example In addition, physical activities help to encourage the youth and the disabled to attend school as it gives them something to look up to thus, increase the rate of school attendance in the community (Smith and Waddington 2004). The disabled, elderly, pre and postnatal are the greatest beneficiary of physical activities as physical activities enhances their social life, technical skills and communication skills thus, help to keep these group of people in line with the community. Hence, physical activities directly affect the community, as it is the main form of ensuring the continuity of the community, society development and regeneration (Stormann 1996). Physical activity is a branch of physical education since it has trainers and professional instructors who teach and offer instructions as a formal education. Physical activity is for people who need adaptation to participate in physical activities. Adaptation is research and practices that serve people of all ages who do not get good services offered by sport sciences and are disadvantaged in accessing opportunities provided by physical activities (Stormann 1996). It extendsÃ¢â¬â¢ beyond disabled people and includes the aged, young and obese individuals, among other categories. Adaptation is provided in terms of appropriately modified and designed sport equipment( for example prosthesis and wheelchairs), using a different skill of instructions, modified task criteria , nonverbal instructions and increasing or decreasing court dimensions (Vail 1992). It is all about matching personal interests and strengths with the appropriate activities, to promote participation in physical acti vities. This is regardless of the population engaged in the physical activity. Leisure World Colchester is a physical activity centre, which serves the local community, students and members of
Friday, August 23, 2019
Disscussion question - Assignment Example Effecting of sanctions and embargoes might do more harm than beneficial to a country for this reason; it should be done carefully after assessment of the possible aftermaths. America at one point had an embargo on almost all commodities excluding oil; this was because oil is one of their economiesÃ¢â¬â¢ driving forces. The other strategy is through innovations which drive towards sustainable growth and quality jobs. Based on the idea that US economy is reliant on fossil fuels, it is tremendously valuable for the US government to protect consumers and businesses against harmful price shocks. Lovett, Eckes & Brinkman (2004) further explains that it has been the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role to assure continuous supply of strategic materials such as oil. For a long time, the U.S has left this task to the national defense stockpile which ensures that materials needed are available in time of war and this meant leaving it to the free market to guarantee supply for the industrial economy. In order to trim down US dependence on doubtful sources of supply of strategic materials need to be based on a combination of approaches (Lovett, Eckes, & Brinkman 2004). Through planned purchasing and procurement, the state ensures availability of strategic materials. When it is done by professional, it is termed as supply management. This makes sure that there is a constant supply of the strategic materials needed to the state and in a reasonable time so that there are no cases of deficit (Lovett, Eckes, & Brinkman (2004). As many would believe, US policy should be aiming at increasing trade. It is fascinating to note that, not all Americans are happy with the policy makers as the majorly dwell on business importance coupled with overwhelming goodwill that incorporate other priorities. Eckes (2000) argues that for a long time, now majority of American have been supporting the trade policy as they believe that it will improve trade. For instance, in 2001, poll
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Annotated Bibliographies - Essay Example Onjira and Gilbert (2009) illustrate the affordances of machine-processable competency modeling. They argue that machine processing is invaluable in e-learning and assessment. They emphasize its effectiveness in e-learning. In addition, Onjira and Gilbert (2009) present the competency modelÃ¢â¬â¢s affordances in generating questions, distractors, and adaptive query sequences. In the article, they conclude that using machine-processable competency overcomes many limitations in interoperability, reusability, and portability. They illustrate that printing of non-English characters, deploying computers in language classrooms and developing language software are now possible because of advanced technology. The article by Fischer elaborated the role of technology in language learning. Smith and Schulze (2013) discuss replication while highlighting its benefits and possible causes of misunderstanding. They argue that not all studies can be replicated, but the existence of replication connotes maturity of the field. Rabuzzi illustrates that dismissal state of STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) education is reported every week in the U.S. according to him, the risks in STEM subjects are because of the post-Cold War economic competition (Rabuzzi, 2014). Rabuzzi argues that improving STEM performance will foster talents of citizens as well as retain their world standing. He also argues that erasing the false divide that exists between scientific inquiry as well as humanistic learning will boost science education. Hughes, J. (2013). Descriptive Indicators of Future TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Technology Integration in the PK- 12 Classroom: Trends from a Laptop-Infused Teacher Education Program. J. Educational Computing Research, 48(4) 491-516. Hughes claims that integration of mobile technologies with professional teacher preparation will advance learning from one discipline approach to integrated learning approach. In connection with this claim, Hughes
Cedar Fair Essay ? Problem Statement Ã¢â¬âWhile Cedar Fair is steadily growing revenue to the 2013 estimated value of $1. 1B, their operating profit percentage has ranged from 50% to -17% over the past 5 years and relies heavily on season pass sales and visitors over a limited operating period of 130 days, leaving them vulnerable to competitive moves by the market leaders in the Amusement Park Industry. Analysis Plan / Data Used / Key Assumptions Ã¢â¬â We will use the Porter 5 forces Model for the Cedar Fair and to compare with the other amusement parks. The 5 forces will help us to understand the strong forces which will help the cedar fair to be more profitable in future. Key data will include from each of the amusement park websites. Also the revenue income provided by IBIS for each amusement park. The financial analysis particularly profit margin provided by mergent online will allow us to access financial performance for each company. Cedar Fair owns and operates 11 amusement parks, four outdoor parks, one indoor water park and five hotels. Cedar park lacks brand identification due to their diverse portfolio. The brand name of Cedar Fair is rarely associated with park or hotels. Data Analysis and Tool Use Ã¢â¬â Using the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 Forces model the strongest rivalry is from the Walt Disney, universal studios, Sea world and Six Flags. Since the Disney is global and has resorts and attractions for all age groups and also it is open all year along and generates income. Disney also keeps updating its theme parks wit new attractions and new technology to attract new customers or repeat too. Large resorts try to entice the customers to come to the parks instead to going to beaches by giving them special passes on internet. The mid-size theme parks attract the local customers who are close by and can drive and go back without spending the night at the hotels. Conclusions Ã¢â¬â The competition among the parks is intense, as the market is saturated and small. To increase the customers in cedar fair should give free pass on birthdays and also introduce packages which can be bought with the installment plan. Recommendation to Management Ã¢â¬â My recommendation would be that since the economy is improving and people have little bit of money to spend on vacations, so they should advertise special offers for the summer time on the internet and TV. They should try to attract more customers from the local region as they cannot compete with the big resort theme parks such as Disney, Universal Studios, and sea world. They should have access to multi-skilled and flexible workforce those who have the ability to quickly adopt new technology. US Amusement Parks Market Share US Parks Total Revenue 2012. Total Income 2012 Percentage Market Share (%) Walt Disney Company $6. 2 billion 5,986M 44. 5% Universal Park and Resorts $2. 1 Billion 95M 15% Sea World Parks Entertainment $1. 4 Billion 55M 11% Cedar Fair $1. 1 Billion 118M 7. 7% Six Flags $1. 06 Billion 249M 7. 9% (IBIS World, 2013) Below is the 5 Forces Model. References: 1) Wood, L. (2013, February 11). Research and markets: 2013 report on the $16 billion us amusement parks arcades market featuring Walt Disney, six flags, cedar fair, SeaWorld, and universal parks resorts. Retrieved from http://www. businesswire.com/news/home/20130211005621/en/Research-Markets-2013-Report-16-Billion-Amusement 2) IBIS World. (2013). Us industry reports. 3) Theme Parks Are on a Roll by Christopher Palmeri in the June 3-9, 2013 issue of Bloomberg Busine ssweek http://www. businessweek. com/articles/2013-05-30/u-dot-s-dot-theme-park-revenue-is-on-its-best-ride-in-years 4) IAAPA. (2013). Amusement park and attractions industry statistics. Retrieved from http://www. iaapa. org/resources/by-park-type/amusement-parks-and-attractions/industry-statistics 5) Six Flags; https://www. google. com/finance? q=NYSE%3ASIXei=w_GHUuD9H4OTsgffMA.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Meaning And Definition Of Business Process Reengineering Information Technology Essay The main of preparing and presenting this report is to understand about the concept what business process engineering is, and how it benefited the companies in reduction on process time and costs. Another objective is to evaluate how business process reengineering enhances the capabilities and working capacities of companies. This Research will also involve the Research of those factors that companies use to develop business process reengineering a more profitable one. Meaning and definition of Business Process Reengineering-BPR: In business processes reengineering all the outdated processes of the business are redesigned along with the connected systems and entitys structures with an aim to reach at a remarkable performance level along with business improvements. The corporate basis for creating these changes possibly will comprise deprived performance in terms of competition, financial aspects and reduction of market share of emerging market opportunities. Business process reengineering just not mean to introduction of new technology, automation, reorganization, and downsizing of business process etc but also involve change assessment various business components such as culture, entity, technology, processes and strategies. According to M. Hammer (2003) in his book reengineering corporation defines BPR as: Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance. Whereas, according to Davenport and short (1990), business process reengineering is Analysis and design of workflows and processes within and between entities And according to Teng et al. (1994), business process reengineering is: Critical analysis and radical redesign of existing business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in performance measures. M. Hammer (2003), spotlight is on radical and fundamental of business process reengineering. Similarly according to him another process improvement technique is Continuous process Improvement (CPI), that mainly gives importance to measurable and small type of modifications in an entitys existing systems and processes. Continuous process improvement includes its foundations in following six sigma and total quality management (TQM) solutions similar to those of Motorola Inc. VARIOUS MYTHS OF BPR: The most accepted management theory has produced supplementary myths than realistic tactics of business process reengineering. Business process reengineering-BPR is in the industry from 1990s, but still BPR is generally get the wrong idea and always associated with ABC, quality, client/server computing, downsizing, and numerous other management change processes in the past decades. On the basis of having conversations through interviews with higher than 20 companies, and 35 reengineering initiatives, etc Davenport Studded (1990) identify seven reengineering myths: Reengineering novelty myth: in spite of having familiar concept reengineering, but is now merged with the latest concepts and brings a synthesis in business. However these combinations of components were not seen ever before. Clean slate myth: Clean slate change is hardly ever found in reality, despite of Davenport and Stoddards (1994) black sheet of paper and M. hammers (1990) catchphrase Dont automate, obliterate!. These phrases were used in design more often than not needs a blank check for execution is completed over some phased projects. Furthermore, it is assisted by groundwork conclusions of Jarvenpaa and Stoddard (1995) that gone opposing to Michael Hammer (1990). According to Michael Hammer reengineering be capable of bringing radical besides, a innovative process of change that may not be viable under specified cost and risks of those innovative processes Information systems Leadership myth: with contrary to greatly hyped leadership role, Information system is usually seen as a co-worker inside a cross-functional group i.e. commonly leaded by a non information system plan leader and a non information system business supporter that got good command over various processes which are to be redesigned. Top-Down Design myth: project implementation and putting it to start the newly redesigned processes extremely depend on working partners. Therefore, involvement of members and further critically approval and possession, the lowland roots stage is crucial for thriving business process reengineering-BPR. Reengineering VS transformation: According to Adams (1984), Entitys transformation system or process is defined as, Profound, fundamental changes in thought and action, which create an irreversible discontinuity in experience of a system whereas, business process reengineering is a process of contributing to entitys transformation system. But any how BPR not means the same as transformation. Engineerings Permanence myth: according to the researchers Davenport and Stoddard (1994), they hypothesize that reengineering has gone high in United States during1994 and may possibly turn into integrated process with greatly broader entitys experience such as another combination of thoughts that comprise awareness of reengineering. Relationship between companies and its customers and importance of business process engineering: The relationship between a company and its customers is not limited to just the buying and selling of a product or service. It has gained new dimensions and expanded from the buying and selling of products and services to a whole range of business practices form customer service, consulting and pricing to production and distribution. Customers have become increasingly selective due to the availability of a wide range of products and services. These changes in the market place have forced companies to rethink about their business processes. Business process reengineering (BPR) makes companies more customers focused and responsive to changes in the market place. These results are achieved by reshaping the corporate structure around the business processes. Business process reengineering (BPR) achieves this transformation, not by automation of the business processes, but by rethinking the companys tasks in a holistic and process oriented manner. Figure: Business as a system Money People Facilities Material Information Information Workflow Output Input Raw materials, Operations, Finished goods, Components, Processes Services Source: Vinod Kumar Garg and N.K Venkitakrishnan, (2002), Enterprise resource planning: concepts and practice, prentice hall, p.28 Business process reengineering and information technology: The increasing use of information technology in businesses has compelled organizations to go for business process reengineering because the implementation of information technology necessitates significant changes in business processes. These changes allow organizations to take full advantage of the benefits offered by information technology. The relationship between business process reengineering (BPR) and information technology cannot be underestimated. For instance, Wal-Mart would not have been able to reengineer its processes for procurement and distribution of its mass-market retail goods without information technology. Michael Hammer (1990), think information technology as main support to business process reengineering-BPR that he thinks as radical change. According to Hammer (1990) the use of Information technology to face hypothesis inborn in project processes which have been present ever since earlier than arrival of present supercomputers and telecommunications technology. Michael hammer also criticize that at the central processing unit of reengineering is idea of Discontinuous thinking or recognizing and breaking away from outdated rules and fundamental assumptions underlying operationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ se rules of work design are based on assumptions about technology, people, and entitys goals that no longer hold, Michael Hammer (1990) Michael Hammer (1990) recommended the following reengineering principles. They are: Organization may not be around tasks but it should be around outcomes Those should involve in implementation process who actually rely on the perform output of the process Consider processing of information task addicted to actual tasks which responsible for information production Take care of geographically detached resources as despite the fact that they will be centralized as they are Connect the activities that are parallel rather than integrating their outcomes Keep judgment point at actual place of work, and create control up on the process; and Gather and collect information once and at the starting place. BPR Implementation methodology: The various stages that a typical BPR implementation program goes through are: Identify the needs for the BPR package: The first stage involves the identification of the needs to be satisfied by adopting the BPR package. Once these needs are identified, organizations can evaluate how ERP implementation can help satisfy these needs. Transforming the labor and machinery based productivity into knowledge and information based productivity can be the examples of the needs that a BPR can satisfy. Evaluating the as-is situation of the business: The next stage involves the identification of various processes involved in the working of the organization. Then, the detailed processes in business activities should be listed. Process mapping can be helpful in detailing the processes. It provides information about the time taken to complete a process, the number of decision points, the number of reporting points and flow of information, etc. Decisions about the desired would-Be situations for the business: once the structure of the current processes is identified, the next stage involves the identification of the desired attributes for each of the processes. Performance standards are set for each process by using benchmarking techniques. Benchmarking ensures that the desired organizational attributes are comparable with the best business practices in the industry. Reengineering of business processes to achieve the desired results: in order to achieve these desired standards in business processes, organizations need to reengineer their current processes. The objectives of business process reengineering including reducing the process cycle time, reducing the number of decision points, optimizing the information flow between different functions and departments, etc. CASE STUDY: A Study on business process reengineering by Prosci The following are the details of a study conducted by Prosci on BPR: The areas of chosen for conducting the research? What should be reengineered, what is going to be reengineered and why? Which alternative advancements/approaches are working? Vital do and dont activities Choosing a best team from alternatives Necessities required for approval of a project PARTICIPANTS OF RESEARCH What processes are targets for Reengineering? Client service was the major commonly reengineered process during the 1997 and 1999, except by fewer of a percentage. Services related to computers and telecommunication almost two times in rate, stirring it from 5th to 2nd mainly embattled business taken for processes reengineering. Are business process reengineering-BPR projects successful? Research members confirm to a large extent in general projected improvements as of their business process reengineering-BPR projects in 1997 or 1999 and now in 2002. More than 50% i.e. (54%) of members likely improvements of over 30% achieved. Furthermore to the anticipated greater improvements, Research members also got success in their projects after implementation of BPR. With reference to the study, 113 Research members are accomplished to compare project in opposition to preliminary set objectives. More than 73% meet up or go beyond their goals, among them almost i.e. 47% approximately of Research members got their project inside 10 percent. Why are certain teams successful? According to the Members of research there were various factors that are responsible for success of their team. Among those the above 3 factors are given below: Dedication and strong commitment towards completion of the project with 100% success Maximum support from top level management and conversion of support into actions Everyone shared a common and clear vision towards the goals and objectives. The team got a single understanding and focus point for success of the project. What did Top management do to encourage project success? Showing outcomes from report of the year 1999, those teams got heavy success which was highly supported by top management. The projects were greatly possible to end with the over and above the organizations success expectations. The failure companies senior managers failed to give sufficient visible involvement in their organizational reengineering project. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ not staying involved enough after the initial phase, assuming that everyone in the entity understood their vision and strategy. An irresistible greater part of the teams had support to their teams from the senior and sponsor managers or executives in the project implementation and the majority rated that the involvement of their seniors use as excellent. What were the problems faced while implementing BPR? Poorly defined business process Rushed deadlines Many complex tasks Only one major milestone Silence from the upper management The wrong team members Unmotivated teams Communication breakdown BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: To gain competitive advantage, organizations should understand the scope of a particular market and identify the various inherent differences between various markets. They need to understand what is required to become qualifiers and order-winners. Qualifiers are the most basic attributes that an organization must possess before any customers will decide to deal with them. For instance, ISO standards have become on e of the key qualifiers for any organization with global markets. Qualifiers provide the initial impetus to customers to deal with an organization but, in order to close a deal, organizations must have order-winners. The order-winners could be price advantage, quality, etc. BPR enables the organizations to optimize and organize different qualifiers and order-winners by redesigning the complete processes so as to gain competitive advantage in the market. Some of the order-winners and qualifiers, which apply to most companies, are discussed below: Price: As price is one of the key order-winners in most markets, the BPR package can help identify the cost centers and assist in redesigning processes to reduce production costs. Setting up tough cost targets and putting in place a rigorous monitoring system can help a company become cost-efficient. Therefore, BPR implementation should focus on the areas in which significant costs are involved so that appropriate resource allocations can be made and management attention can be focused on them. When a company uses price reduction as an order-winner, it should also change its corporate strategy accordingly. It needs to assess changes in lead-times, investment implications and cost-reduction potential in several areas. Without assessing these factors, the changes in the strategy will be inappropriate. Delivery reliability and speed: Delivery reliability has also become one of the criteria on which customers judge an organizations competitiveness. BPR can make more efficient the procurement and distribution activities and reduce the process lead time involved in purchasing the raw materials and distribution of finished products. BPR helps to reduce the time in coordinating activities among all the entities of the supply chain through the smooth flow of information between them. With the help of BPR, the lead time required to process an order is reduced significantly. The need to provide information to customers and suppliers has forced BPR vendors to implement their applications with e-commerce also. Quality: The concept of quality no longer denotes just a state of being free from defects. Today, quality encapsulates many dimensions like performance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability and aesthetics. BPR by its redesigning capabilities can bridge the gap between the existing process and the implementation of the best process can help an organization achieve its quality objectives. Product range: In todays competitive world, organizations need to provide products in different shapes and sizes that satisfy the requirements of the different segments of the markets. They need a variety of products in their product line. But as the product range increase, the cost and time of production increases due to the modification of production process to accommodate the changes required for each product range. BPR, through reducing the process defects and be making the old labor and machinery system to knowledge and information systems, help in integrating the functionalities and a common database, enhances the capabilities that assists organizations in this direction. KEY GUIDE LINES TO BE FOLLOWED: Important guidelines that an organization must follow in Business Process Reengineering to make it more efficient and profitable: Business process reengineering is different from other IT systems/models in that its implementation is not restricted to a single functional domain. In order to take full advantage of the profitable benefits of the BPR package, organizations may/need to follow the guidelines given below: Define corporate needs and culture: In order to implement a BPR system successfully, a complete overhaul of the business organization is needed. Organizations should assess their readiness for change and the possibility of the implementing change in the organization. The level of difficulty in bringing about change depends on the amount of change involved. Project leaders should assess the level of difficulty they are likely to face. The top management should provide complete support for the implementation of the BPR package. Implementing a BPR package may also involves the redefinition of the roles of different functional departments, and the authority and responsibility of individuals throughout the organization. Complete business process change: The organization should be aware of the required changes in business process and skills and attitudes for BPR implementation. It may have the willingness to adopt changes but may not be able to assess the implications of the changes. Therefore, the organization should undergo a brief business process redesigns exercise before the actual implementation. The redesigning exercise should be carried out on the basis of the structure of the BPR package, so that there is no mismatch between the required functionalities and the functionalities provided by the BPR package. Communicate across the organization: Communication allows different entities involved or affected by BPR implementation to be aware of its effects on their jobs. Proper communication optimizes the implementation process, as the employees are aware of what is required of them. Besides, feedback provides the management with information needed to allay the concerns of the employees. Communication should not overstate or understate the functionalities of the new system. Overstating the functionalities would raise employees expectations unrealistically, while understating them may leave employees unprepared for the changes required for BPR implementation. Provide strong leadership: Strong leadership is an important success factor in implementing a BPR package. The difference between and informal support and active leadership can be the difference between the success and the failure. Therefore, the members of the steering committee members should be able to understand the business redesign and integration. Though these may be complicated processes, the right modeling tools can help them make simpler to follow. The steering team should be trained in process mapping and reengineering methodology and it should be fully involved in the process redesign so that it can guide the team members (implementation team) properly. Select a balanced team: The size and complexity of BPR implementation and maintenance necessitates a balanced team of professionals. In general, the BPR implementation team consists of personnel from IT, finance, marketing, sales and production. Most companies hire external BPR consultants who provide information about the operational aspects of the new BPR system and assist the internal team. Select a good method of implementation: As the implementation of a BPR package involves the participation of all the departments, a proper sequence of steps should be identified to define the implementation process. Project leader should set the milestones to be achieved in the various phases of the implementation and review progress continuously against the milestones. They should define clearly the scope of the project and develop the work breakdown structure (WBS), and estimate the time required to complete each activity identified in the WBS. This will help them reach a realistic project plan. They need to ensure that there is no compromise with the quality of the new process/system. Organization-wide training: BPR is a complex and organization wide system that requires some amount of training so that full advantage of the capabilities of the new process can be taken. The steering team should be trained in process analysis and redesign. The staff in the information technology department should be made aware of the package architecture, design and configuration. Functional managers should learn how the new process performs and how it can be useful in the decision-making process. The training varies across the different levels, and is based on the requirements of the persons using the new system or process. CONCLUSIONS: The term Business process reengineering-BPR, has an imperfect records in the past. But became popular in 1990s beginning, conversely, tactics and advancements was not completely be aware or nor valued. A lot of time, upgrading projects tagged with the name Business Process Reengineering-BPR be inadequately designed and implemented. Organizations and their employees get embarrassed at consideration of an additional Business process reengineering-BPR familiarity. The concept BPR is less utilized, and modified lot of times from the actual business process reengineering-BPR that was earlier exists. An organization operating in a competitive environment needs to have competitive advantage over others to attract and retain business. This can happen when different organizational functions develop strategies that complement the corporate strategy. An organizations competitive advantage can be defined by service quality, responsiveness and ability to satisfy customers needs and wants. In spite of this mistreatment of put into practice and imperfect name, applications of business process redesigning, connected technology and entitys structure is further accepted these days than past. Organizations go on with to reconsider and basically transform system they conduct operations. Cutthroat competitive force and a slow-moving market offer efficient techniques for entities motivated to work as efficiently and professionally as feasible.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Development of Forensic Science Methods The Criminal Justice System of England in the 18th century initially consisted of perpetrators being privately prosecuted by their victim, with the victims playing the role of the criminal investigator; gathering and submitting evidence, paying fees to cover the expenses of the constables time in order to apprehend the suspect, filing charges with the local magistrates and presenting evidence to the grand jury. However, the development of the CJS has resulted in professional bodies gathering and submitting evidence, alongside the representation of victims in court by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), victim support services and there are an array of specialist courts in existence who handle cases specific to their knowledgeable subject. The Contribution of Forensic Science to Police Investigation As cited by Pyreck (2007, p. 4), The National Institue of Justice (NIJ. 1998) defines forensic science as the application of scientific knowledge to the legal system. Thornton (1997) observes, Forensic comes to us from the Latin forensus meaning of the forum. In ancient Rome, the forum was where governmental debates were held, but it was also where trials were held. It was the courthouse. So, forensic science has come to mean the application of the natural and physical sciences to the resolution of conflicts within a legal setting. The Home Office Report (2005, p. vii) proposes that factors such as the degree of integration and communication between police and scientific support appeared to be important in determining retrieval rates. Forensic science was initially a conventional means to corroborate suspected offenders, however due to procedures such as DNA testing; the report goes on to state that there is an increase in the proportion of volume crime offences detected using foren sic evidence. In the UK, it is estimated that, for directly detected volume crimes, the main evidence securing the detection was forensic in more than one quarter of cases. Databases such as AFIS and NDNA run systems which provide comparable results from forensic evidence to apprehend offenders on the system; with a detection rate of attaining perpetrators in seven in ten cases, which can render to be the solution to a further 0.4 open cases on the system. Fingerprint evidence can be found 41% of the time at scenes of vehicle crimes, 45% of non-residential burglaries and one in three residential burglary scenes; with 10% of scenes providing DNA evidence. However, it proves to be difficult to collect forensic evidence when scenes are inaccessible, have been purged or the offender has been vigilant. It can also be difficult to convict suspects with a positive DNA match when there is insufficient evidence or the individual provides a legitimate alibi. The use of forensic measures in co urt however, have proven to impact cases in a positive light; namely for theft, murder and burgulary cases, with an increase of 17% for burglary; alongside this, the appraisal of DNA and fingerprint evidence augments a jurys decision to convict in cases of homicide and rape. Methodology Applied when Gathering Blood Spatter Evidence and Other Samples in Criminal Investigation Forensic Scientists can gather a more accurate profile of the perpetrator and how the crime was committed by gathering and analysing the following specimens: Hair analysis Fiber Analysis Glass Fragments Paint Chips Analysis Soil Analysis Ballistics Toolmarks Bitemarks Fingerprints Footwear Tire Impressions Blood Spatter Analysis DNA Analysis Blood, Semen, and Saliva (DNA matching and typing; blood-spatter analysis Nonhuman DNA (dog, cat, deer, whales) Drugs (drug identification, forensic pathology) Explosives (bomb and arson identifications and source traces) Fibers (fiber typing, source identification, and matching) Hair (hair typing and matching) Fingerprints (fingerprint matching, AFIS, etc.) Bones (gender and age typing, identification of remains; weapon identification) Wound analysis (weapon typing; physical movement patterning) Firearms and ammunition (ballistics and tool-mark identification) Powder residues (shootings, suicides) Glass (glass typing and matching) Foot, tire and fabric impressions (impression typing and matching) Paint (paint typing and matching in automobile collisions, hit and run) Petroleum products (product typing and matching) Plastic bags (typing and matching; garbage bags as suffocation device or when used in transports) Soils and minerals (mineral typing and matching; forensic geology) Tool marks (tool identification and matching; homicides, burglary, home invasions, etc.) Wood and vegetative matter (plant typing and matching; plant DNA) RAPD matching; limnology, Forest Service Lab Insects, larvae, maggots; forensic entomology; time of death; location analyses) (Kiely, F. T. 2006, p. 50) One of the underlying principles behind forensic analysis is the concept that when two individuals come in contact with one another, or if an individual comes in contact with an object, there is a high probability of transfer of biological material (skin, hair, etc.). The transfer does not always have to be as obvious as blood, (Missouri State Highway Patrol, p. 22). Due to this, it is important to collect samples from all those whom have been in contact with the victim and the scene of the crime to avoid wrongful implications by eliminating those individuals whom do not match the suspects DNA profile. Analysing Blood, Semen and Saliva Samples Hair is a biological specimen of the body and may be associated back to its source through DNA analysis (although DNA is not always successfully extracted from hair), (Missouri State Highway Patrol page. 30). Alternatively, materials stained with blood, semen, saliva can be collected, be ensured to be air dried before placed in a paper bag and sealed, then tagged with the identification of the contents, exhibit number, initial and date. For porous material such as cloth and leather, investigators are advised to cut the area containing the stain; however for nonporous materials such as glass and metal, stains are removed via a cotton swab that has been moistened with water; and for liquid stains, a clean cotton swab is immersed in the sample. In terms of collecting semen samples, when the specimen is not drying-out, alternatively, condoms are to be frozen. When collecting a Buccal (Oral) swab, two to four swabs must be vigorously rubbed on the interior of the cheek for a minimum of 30 secs to a minute to recover epithelial (skin) tissue; which must then be labelled with the individuals names. The Application of Fingerprint Identification When fingerprint evidence found in a body of water is collected, it should remain in the original water. A watertight container should be lowered into the water and allowed to fill. This allows the evidence to be placed in the container without exposing it to the air. If fingerprint evidence found in water is allowed to dry before processing, the likelihood of developing prints of value dramatically decreases. (Missouri State Highway Patrol) page. 17)The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a database which stores fingerprints that have been taken from suspects, whether they have been incarcerated or not; due to which perpetrators are easily identified, without having a definitive suspect, as their prints are already present on the system. Latent fingerprints on nonporous materials deteriorate rapidly upon prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. Consequently, items should be processed and/or forwarded to a laboratory as soon as possible A ruled scale should be used when photographing latent prints. Latent prints on materials are to be handled with gloves and placed in a cellophane protector, whereas latent prints on surfaces such as plastic cards, metal plates and glass bottles are dusted with finger print powder and then extracted with lifting tape and placed on a 3 x 5 card, which contrasts in color with the dusting powder used. Behavioural Science Support As cited by Alison and Rainbow (2011), the crime scene is presumed to reflect the murderers behaviour and personality in much the same way as furnishings reveal the homeowners character (Douglas et al., 1992: 21) (Alison, L. and Rainbow, L. 2011 p. 19) Full verbal case briefing and access to the SIO/investigation team All relevant statements Crime reports Any officers reports/status reports Pathology and forensic reports/findings Full set of crime scene and pst -mortem photographs Available analysis (e.g. telephony, palynology, entomology, etc) Relevant maps Visit to all relevant scenes; allows the BIA to gain fuller understanding of the decision-making process of the offender. Such information is not routinely available from (the above mentioned methods), where often the evidential focus is too restrictive to provide the necessary behavioural perspective. (Alison, L. and Rainbow, L. 2011 p. 25) Behavioural Investigative Advisors (BIAs) provide a theoretical perspective in investigations via the use of forensic psychology to support investigators by implementing methods such as crime scene assessment; DNA screening; suspect prioritisation; familial DNA; nominal pool generation; interview strategy; media strategy; offender background characteristics; and investigation strategy, (Newburn, T. Et al. p.. 658). In order to perform an accurate evaluation, BIAs require case materials such as: Please refer to Appendix. 1: Example of the BIAs work. The BIA are able bodies whom provide expertise in offender profiling to connect cases where correlating physical evidence is not evident. The Serious Crime Analysis Section (SCAS) of the NPIA, through their mandate to collect and analyse a range of sexually motivated offences throughout the UK, now has more than 16,500 offences on ViCLAS (Violent Crimes Linkage Analysis System) database, (Alison, L. and Rainbow, L. 2011 p. 25). Appendix Appendix 1: Example of the BIAs work. (Alison, L. and Rainbow, L. 2011) Case Study 2, folder 1FF, 194528.jpg
Monday, August 19, 2019
*New Buddy* The book I read is called The Diary of Anne Frank by Anne Frank The book is a true story about a thirteen year old girl who receives a diary on her thirteenth birthday. The book is a short autobiography In her diary Anne tells Kitty (her pretend friend) everything that happens in her life. The interesting factor in the book is that the time of AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s preteen years is the time of the rise of Hitler who oppressed the Jews. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s family is forced into hiding into a secret apartment on top of a factory store in which one of the FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s friends works. Meep, the friend brings food up to the Franks. Anne and her family stay in hiding for four years. Just when the Franks are almost ready to leave a man working in the factory rats the Franks out to the Nazis. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s diary begins on her thirteenth birthday and ends shortly after her fifteenth .In the book she writes of her friendships with other girls and her performance in school. The school Anne goes to is called the Lycelium for Jews. Anne also has a sister. Her name is Margot. Margot is 17 years old and very mature. Anne gets along well with her sister. Her father comes from a wealthy family. Anne gets along nicely with him. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is not spoken of too much in the book., mostly because she does not have a good relationship with her. When Hitler was first taking power the Jews were forced into all Jewish schools. It was there that Anne met a good friend. Her name was Joy. Anne and Joy became friends but only for a short while before Anne was forced into hiding. Anne and her family hid from the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s for two and a half years. The Franks stayed with three other people. They had a woman named Meep bring food to them. The rise of Hitler grew worse as the years passed. The Nazis were then taking Jews to camps where they would kill them. The Franks got into many arguments with the people in the house and Anne was between it all. During this time Anne was beginning to like one of the boys she was staying with in the house.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Violence in the Media Violence in the media has been a growing problem ever since the emergence of mass media. One wonders however, how violence has become so prominent in our culture, more so than other countries. More minors are being involved in heinous crimes such as murders and armed robberies. Even play on the school ground is getting rougher. There are many factors that play into the increasing violence, such as over population, religious struggles, and race. One factor that plays into the increase of violence would be mass media. Mass media has the power to reach and influence almost every American. Radio, newspaper, and television are all means by which media reaches people. Television however, can be considered the most influential. Ninety-eight percent of Americans have a television in their household. When it first came out it was considered a novelty, there were only a few channels and the signal was not very clear. Now it is available through air broadcast, cable, or satellite. Television ha s become part of everyday life. With the growing fixation and attraction to violence in the media, children in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society are becoming more violent and aggressive than ever before. However, to obtain a true understanding of this problem we must look at all aspect that cause violence, and not just put all of the blame on the media. Nevertheless, we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t forget the number one violence causing aspect, the media. America was founded upon violence; and we have always been a society of power and control. This land was violently taken away from the American Indians. After this land was civilized, power and control was desired so much so that we rebelled against Great Britain to have this place for ourselves. We rebelled with violence and won. America ever since has always been the best at almost everything. America will achieve this most of the time thru violence. Both world wars and other political conflicts have been won by America using violence. Power achieved thru violence is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s downfalls. People in America have the spirit that this country was founded upon, which has its negative and positive aspects. However, violence is finding its way into out culture everywhere, especially the television. When it comes to children and television, there is much debate. Many argue that television is healthy for children. It opens up th... ...oduction of television (Facts about Media). This only proves that people become more violent from watching television or more immune to it. Many people admitted after September 11th that when they watched the planes crash into the World Trade Centers that they were not fazed. This is because Hollywood has shown things crash and blow up so much that we confuse it with a Hollywood movie. When you watch something so much it becomes a part of your life. You do not know the difference of it being Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ or just Ã¢â¬Å"TV.Ã¢â¬ In conclusion, violence in the media has been a growing problem for quite awhile. Mass media has the power to reach and influence almost every American. Radio, newspaper, and television are all means by which media reaches people. Through means of mass media, mostly television, violence is reaching Americas youth and turning our culture into a violent hungry society. Television has great influence on children. It opens their eyes to the world and violence on TV has a devastating effect that continues throughout their adulthood. Even though we canÃ¢â¬â¢t blame all of our flaws and problems on the media we should at least focus and fix this problem before too much harm is done.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Abstract This personal model of counseling addresses the importance of developing a biblical theory of Christian Counseling, which also integrates psychology, theology and spirituality, without diminishing the relevance of each. The working model for counselors should provide practical techniques for the inclusion of believers and non-Christians, as they work towards a personal relationship with God. This paper will discuss the personality traits, external influences that build a personal integrative theory of scientific disciplines and theological truths. The works of relevant theorists and authors will be reviewed as comparable viewpoints on Christian Counseling and how integration can benefit individuals, couples and families. The paper will begin to create a personal guideline for the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s counseling practices with clients from all backgrounds. It will conclude with personal thoughts to identify areas for growth and improvement. A Personal Integrated Approach to Counseling Introduction A comprehensive personal theory of counseling should integrate Psychology, Theology and Spirituality. One of the most important goals of counseling is develop a theoretic approach through the integration of Psychology, Theology and Spirituality. Individually, each discipline offer concepts that are unique and relevant, yet separately they lack the inferences of other viewpoints that may be overlooked. There is a basic understanding for counselors to focus the treatment on the client, as well as temporal systems that exist which have influence on the client. Therefore, the intent of integrating these theories will provide the counselor with a more comprehensive wisdom and faith to combine the key elements of each to implement into their counseling practices. A concern for counselors is the prioritization of theology over psychology. This can be difficult as well as thought provoking for and individual to undertake because of the historical debate between faith and science. An individual deeply rooted in their biblical worldview will argue that with faith, they require no further belief, while others with a secular based worldview requires the proof of statistics and data for their belief. (Entwistle, 2010, p. 9) Secular viewpoints are bound by the limitations of earthly living and its standards. The Christian viewpoint is directly related to the fact that their eternal destiny is ordained because they are a child of God. The counselor who will be successful at integration will find it necessary to increase their competence in all areas. (McMinn, 2011) states that the best at interdisciplinary integration are those that have an informal and formal preparation of both psychology and theology. While there can be preference in either theory, counselors are cautioned not to minimize the doctrines of Theology or misrepresent the clinical applications of Psychology. Personality Development of Personality Human personality is a set of characteristics and traits, as well as emotions and behaviors that make each person unique. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality usually remains consistent throughout life. However, personality can be altered by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, temporal systems as well as traumatic events. For counselors it can be challenging when attempting to understand Human Personality without exploring the clients past. This can uncover many of the misbeliefs, hurt feelings originating in childhood that manifest into maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. (Backus & Chapian, 2000) The Christian worldview allows the understanding of all human functioning parts: The physical and the personal. The physical represents the body and the personal acknowledges the spirit or soul. A counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is centered with both the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind where misbeliefs and attitudes are held. They must first look at the totality of a client through the u se of concentric circles. This theory allows the counselor the viewpoint of the various circles that create human personality. The innermost circle represents the self. It represents the core where the image of God, the Holy Spirit, and issues of sin reside. Also within the core is the heart where scripture shows the heart as vital function of providing life giving blood. The heart is that part of a human that chooses the basic direction they will follow in life. (Crabb, 1977) The outer layers consist of the soul of a human infused with the Holy Spirit. When we are born, we inhabit a soul that allows us to think, feel and choose. Your spirit is in union with God if he is the choice for the center of your life. Scripture notes that those who alternatively do not accept God into their life will become vulnerable to the influence of Sin and Satanic forces. Consequently, it is the choices that guide the soul and the resulting emotions, thoughts and behaviors that impact human interactions and relationships. As you move to the outer circles there is theory that is presented that exhibits the correlation of the body and the effects on human personality. The physical circle illustrates the connection with the body and physical health as humans relate to life challenges. Our bodies alert us to potential dangers in the form of pain and discomfort. When the body is in distress, messages sent to the brain are distorted. The outcomes of physical pain, will affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mood, energy and cognitive abilities. The physical circle illustrates the connection with the body and physical health as humans relate to life challenges. (Hart, 1999) Finally, there are two components of circles in this theory. The first is the temporal system. These are the external forces or the earth systems such as family, friends, religious affiliations, economic conditions and society that create positive and negative personality traits in humans. The author Crabb suggests that humans have two basic needs; sig nificance and security in order to function effectively. (Crabb, 1977) When we feel secure and significant we are then deemed to be worthwhile. However, the interactions of Hawkins temporal systems will jeopardize these assurance and the results are maladaptive behaviors that lead clients to therapy. The final outer circle is supernatural systems. (Hawkins, 2009) In this system, God, Angel, Satan and Demonic forces are introduced. Spiritual forces inhabit all humans, yet there is a battle between the dark forces of Satan, and the truth in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word. . Author Neil Anderson describes the forces at work on the formation of human personality. (Anderson, 2000) These evil forces disguise themselves and aggressively seek to intervene with deception of the Holy Spirit. Without a personal relationship with God, Satan has opportunity to manipulate thoughts and create misbeliefs which are the direct cause of emotional turmoil, and maladaptive behaviors. (Backus & Chapian, 2000) The supernatural outer circle aids in the quest for a realization that spiritua l disciplines can help begin the process for an internal change. Motivation One of the major premises of counseling is to develop an understanding why people do what they do. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are directly connected to their personality profile. Behind every action there is energy or a force that results in a specific behavior. Every human has motivations that are based often on self-centered needs. The basic needs are physical which encompasses the elements critical to life, the need for emotional relationships as well as the need for significance and security. Counselors are aware that Human Need will continue and this need moves people into false outside systems in order to reach the type of gratification they desire, rather than seek a relationship with God. That relationship indicates the temperament of the unbeliever as opposed to a believer. The unbeliever thinks of himself first, and evaluates life in terms of the world system and the behavior is motivated and designed to meet his or her own needs. While the believer will still experience misbeliefs in his conscious mind, however this individual makes a deliberate choice to evaluate his or her world based on a biblical framework. The biggest difference is the believerÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to live for Christ and exhibit behaviors that are Christ like and subsequently will receive them in return. (Crabb, 1977, p. 107) Human Development All Humans have a desire for autonomy in the world from a very early age. This search for self-governing freedom to establish their place in the world but is conflicted by the distortion of good and evil. The boundaries or acceptable behaviors guide the decision making process. These boundaries are for self-preservation. (Cloud & Townsend, 1999) Positive choices, allow the capacity to be loving and kind to others, use physical energy creatively, and live a purpose driven life. The alternative choice directs individuals on a path of sin and brokenness that prevents both growth and maturity. (McMinn, 2011) Without self-control individuals a counselor has the ability to guide this development process by helping them realize their position in the kingdom of God. Scripture emphasizes the purpose for an intimate relationship with God in that acknowledges a rebirth as a child of God, and confirms that life is no longer in the flesh but now life is in Christ. The intent of a counselor is to progress the client toward the development of an optimal balance of mental and spiritual health. Individual Differences Every human has a viewpoint of the world that is used as base of understanding of the world and their place in it. It is model of assumptions and evaluations that impacts personality traits and behaviors and forms a standard of living. (Clinton & Ohlschlager, 2002, p. 59) Most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview are inherited rather than chosen and are shaped by cultural, religious and social influences. The presumptions can transcend into discriminatory beliefs to those who have opposing viewpoints. Counselors who are willing to address cultural difference in their client are mostly those that do not see them as impediments, but as an opportunity for growth. Individuals with an understanding & acceptance of themselves will achieve a greater sense of emotional and spiritual health. Health and Illness Health is more than a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. There are other components such psychological, and spiritual. The goal is achieve perfect health on all levels, however this can be challenging for clients to achieve and difficult for counselors to measure. A lifestyle that consists of a balanced diet, physical activities should result in good health; however, these alone are not sufficient. (McMinn, 2011) offers a triad approach that includes an accurate sense of self, healing relationships and an accurate sense of need. Those that are committed toward moving toward total health learn self-love and worth, to recognize needs as well as the importance of therapeutic relationships. There are biological, physical and social systems that all contribute to the symptoms of an illness. The pain and discomfort are presented in the physical body, while anxiety, sinful behavior and other temporal systems affect health. Conflicting messages delivered to the brain trigger and imbalance of worry and stress that are manifested in personality disorders. When people try to function in areas that affect untended and unhealed hurts, they will hurt others. (Wilson, 2001) Psychological and Spiritual Illness Sin is a pervasive element of human condition. In biblical terms, it dates back to Adam and Eve as committing the Ã¢â¬Å"originalÃ¢â¬ sin. It is often misused by those who commit that they are ill; therefore they engage in sinful behavior. Through the use of attributional style, decipher if mental illness or the absence of spirituality are the sources of maladaptive behaviors. (McMinn, 2011) Consequently there must be a conscious choice to identify what sin represents in preventing an intimate relationship with God. Spiritual illness is living outside the will of God who desires peace and tranquility for those who accept him in their life. James 4:17 (King James) Integration and Multitasking McMinn (1996) stresses the need for counselors to evaluate a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems from several viewpoints simultaneously. Through a multidimensional lens, there is the ability to explore theological, psychological perspectives. Developing the ability to multi-task, integrates the science of psychology, the truth in Theology and Spirituality, with the focus on theological truth as a foundation, without diminishing the significance of other perspectives. Effective multitasking acknowledges the forces that influence personality. Nine elements including the body, the human spirit, volition, sin and temporal systems illustrate how humans can obtain a healthy balance when there is a spiritual foundation. Interdisciplinary Integration requires competence that goes beyond the understanding of theology and psychology. Spirituality is not viewed as a study of credentials. It is the personal relationship with God that confronts weaknesses and dependence on God. The author also expresses tha t counselors must engage in the practice of personal devotion and exploring their own spiritual beliefs, through additional training and study Elements of Theory This theory of counseling incorporates integrative applications of disciplines and concepts with emphasis on the core of the human as the source where the spirit resides, cognitive behaviors are developed, and personality structures emerge. As a counselor develops a plan of treatment for a client, attention must be given to both parts of a human. The material or physical self and the immaterial or spirit self. Each part of the self represents areas for the counselor to learn and explore influences on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions and dysfunctional behavior. My theory mirrors (Crabb, 1977) presents a unique theory of counseling which he refers to the concepts of Tossed Salad and Nothing Buttery approach to counseling. There is a balanced integration however the focus is on teaching the truth in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word from biblical perspective as the most important. I believe effective counseling combines the strengths of various disciplines, without diminishing or promoting one over the other. A comprehensive theory removing deeply rooted misbeliefs and replace with biblical truths. My theory leads clients into an intimate relationship with God and provides a guide to initiate the process of change. (Hawkins, 2009) Process and Techniques Four elements are introduced in the counseling relationships that work together in a successful counseling experience: the spirit, the counselor, the counselee and the bible. The counselor establishes trust, engages the client by attentive listening as they explore the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, and create a working process that toward goals for both counselor and client. The counselor teaches principles of integration identify patterns of healing, guides the client toward change. The client acknowledges their spiritual relationship with God, takes ownership for emotions and behaviors, and commits to change from within. True transformation begins with a renewal of the mind. (Adams, 1986) Expectations and Effectiveness of Theory The effectiveness of the theory is evaluated through the client progression towards a balanced h awareness of self, God, healthy relationships. (Crabb, 1977) theory suggests that success is measured in Spiritual and Psychological Maturity. The presentation of symptom relief, decreased maladaptive behaviors promote well-being. As counselors enter into experiences with our clients, we trust that God will bless their honesty and courage, as they display progression toward overall improvements in life functioning (Petrocelli, 2002) Worldview and Influence on Theory The basis for my theory is based on a worldview of personal experiences and reflection. It demonstrates a biblical foundation that incorporates the integration of psychology, spirituality and theology. The emphasis of theory reviews the systems surrounding the core self that affect personality, including temporal and supernatural systems. This theory allows a better understanding of the motivation behind a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s choices. Approach to Integration My approach dispels the myth that Christianity is just a religious belief and psychology is just science of profession, it illustrates that combined integration counselor can understand that you can be a religious person, and still find solutions and order in the science of psychology that examines human behavior. Christianity does not inhibit scientific progress; in fact it is viewed as a major force to the further the exploration of the science. The Spoiled Egyptian Approach has a secular approach to psychology, the weeds out elements that oppose the truth in the scripture. (Crabb, 1977) Conclusion This theory is grounded in a well-balanced foundation. It addresses the theories of integration, Multitasking and Worldviews. The goal of a counselor is summarized into two parts; to lead my clients into an intimate relationship with God and guide the process of change. I believe the strong desire to help my clients begins within the heart of a counselor whose life inhabits the truth in the word of God, as a foundation for their personal theory of counseling. References Adams, J. E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Anderson, N. T. (2000). The Bondage Breaker; Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings, and Habitual Sins. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers. Backus, Dr., W., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Bloomington, Minnesota: Bethany House Publishers. Clinton, T., & Ohlschlager, G. (2002). Competent Christian Counseling: Foundations and practices of compassionate soul care. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Waterbrook Press. Cloud, Dr., H., & Townsend, Dr., J. (1999). Boundaries in Marriage. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Crabb, Dr., L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling; A Model for Helping Caring Christians Become Capable Counselors. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity (2nd ed.). Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books. Hart, Dr., A. D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc. Hawkins, R. (2009). Constructing a Theory of Counseling. McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishing. Petrocelli, J. V. (2002). Processes & Stages of Change: Counseling with the Trans theoretical model of change [journal]. Journal of Counseling & Development, 23(4). Social, cognitive processes in behavioral health; Implications for Counseling. (1995). Counseling Psychologist, 2(4). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu Wilson, S. D. (2001). Hurt People, Hurt People; Hope and Healing for Yourself and Your Relationships. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Discovery House Publishers.
Prostitution is known as the oldest profession in the world, however, many states in the U.S. outlaw it. The textbook definition of prostitution is the Ã¢â¬Å"act or practice of engaging in sexual acts for moneyÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Prostitution,Ã¢â¬ Macmillan 805). Nevada is the first in the United States to legalize prostitution. Although the long term effects of legalized prostitution is uncertain, the short term effects have been economically beneficial. Prostitution should be legalized because not only could it financially benefit the country, but it could also reduce crime. There are many reasons why prostitution is illegal in 49 U.S. states today. First, and foremost, many people feel that prostitution should stay illegal in order to preserve morality. Parents do not want their children to grow up thinking that prostitution is acceptable. Worse yet, parents do not want to hear their children say, Ã¢â¬Å"When I grow up, I want to be a prostitute.Ã¢â¬ Christianity also looks down upon prostitution because according to their beliefs, the act of sex is only to be done when a man and a women are in love and married. Monogamy is to be practiced in the marriage, and any violation of this is considered a sin. Another reason why the preservation of morality is so important is that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s morals shape the future of a nation. Many people feel that if prostitution is legalized, then its long term effects would be detrimental to the.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Siblings are the people we practice on, the people who teach us about fairness and cooperation and kindness and caring quite often the hard way. Pamela Dugdale (Blog writer) Would Telemachus be a Good or Bad Brother? Imagine for a moment what would happen if Telemachus, OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ son, Ã¢â¬Å"The OdysseyÃ¢â¬ by Homer, had a younger brother or sister. How would his life change if he knew he has somebody to protect? Or if he knew he has somebody to pass the reins of power to? Probably he could be braver by knowing he is a live shield for somebody.On the other hand what would happen with his temperament if he had an older brother or sister? There is a chance he would be mentally weaker. Maybe he would blame his sibling for all of his troubles. In order to find answers to these questions I will be presenting you bare facts from research studies made by different people in different centuries. I am also testing my own experience and ability to understand this precious bond betwee n siblings and family members. I am an older brother to my two younger lovely sisters. While I was growing up I was still the only child, but I was like an older brother to my two dear cousins.Family bond is a special thing. Whenever you speak to your close family member whom you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen for a while, you are most likely to take his or her words deep into your heart. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why silver-eyed Athena uses form of Iphthime, PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, in order to convince Penelope. And I will do my best to describe lonely prince TelemachusÃ¢â¬â¢ character and apply it to the whole different environment, which will show the peculiarity of growing up with siblings. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s imagine him sharing not only common moment of happiness and joy, but bitter sweet moments of grief and sadness.Depending on what kind of person his sibling would be, Telemachus could possibly show us some of his negative qualities. Because I think Telemachus would be too modest to be in charge of t he family, I feel like his sibling would overpower him. But in some ways better than his father, loving and generous person Telemachus would become a good brother! There is an interesting article I read that I would like to share. It is called Ã¢â¬Å"siblings relationshipÃ¢â¬ and for its most part it is summarizing article that gives a reader a broad view of siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior in a family.Here are some interesting moments: Ã¢â¬Å"The earliest research on relationships among siblings developed the common theme that brothers and sisters relate to each other mainly in a rivalrous way, competing for parental attention and status within the family unit. It is true that young siblings frequently fight with each other, putting a strain on the entire family; in fact, family psychologists report that squabbling among siblings is one of the top concerns of their clientsÃ¢â¬ (sibling relationship). It is true that rivalry exist within any family with two and more kids.But scientist s, in their materialistic nature, will always be looking for sources and reasons why it happens. The old opinion is formulated by Alfred Adler in 1959. Adler says, Ã¢â¬Å"that the Ã¢â¬ËdethronementÃ¢â¬â¢ of the eldest child by the birth of a sibling is a trauma that initiates all sibling rivalryÃ¢â¬ (sibling relationship). This opinion is pretty narrow. Newer facts that we get fromÃ¢â¬Å"Some studies show that those siblings who exhibit the most rivalry are also the most likely to cooperate, be affectionate, share, and support each otherÃ¢â¬ (sibling relationship).Meaning it helps kids to develop good qualities such as ability to share, compassion, consideration and patience. My interpretation of it is as follows: if two brothers are fighting over a bicycle and an older brother always gets to ride it and he does it day after day. Until he gets to the point when he starts realizing that he makes his brother sad. This is a moment when older brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is sta rting to change. Maybe he will not change his behavior right away, because there is usually too much rivalry going on between brothers.So itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to older brother to change first, but both of them will carry an understanding of the importance of sharing into adult life. In a similar way siblings learn how to solve relationship problems that may happen in their future. When interviewed one old couple said, Ã¢â¬Å"The Secret of Our 78-Year Marriage? Argue Every DayÃ¢â¬ (101-Year-Old Married Couple). I would like to come up with an only child in a family study in order to better understand Telemachus.There is a stereotype that children have a better chance to grow into healthy adults if they have siblings. Ã¢â¬Å"The only child is popularly considered to be selfish, lonely, and maladjustedÃ¢â¬ (Falbo). This opinion was around for more than a hundred of years since the first studies in 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s. Nowadays the studies show only child in family usually performs better in s chool and is more likely to achieve expectations of their parents. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get me wrong here; I think siblings gain better qualities in their childhood than only child.When siblings grow up and become adults they tend to be emotionally strong and prepared for relationship issues that are inevitable. On the contrary, the only child is not emotionally prepared and will have expectations of everything and everyone to be near to perfect. The moment something goes wrong it is harder for the only child to accept it and work on that emotional problem. In an article called Ã¢â¬Å"Only child syndrome a mythÃ¢â¬ the author crashes the myth of the only child not having enough friends.Nonetheless there are some interesting facts in the article. It says, Ã¢â¬Å"A study of kindergarteners, published in 2004 in the Journal of Marriage and Family, found that teachers rated sibling-less children lower on a variety of social skills, including self-control and interpersonal skillsÃ¢â¬ (Sohn ). For a moment imagine this happens in 2004 when there are a lot of pre-school classes for kids and day-care centers, but back on Ithaca years and years ago Telemachus probably had not many kids to play with.Laura Padilla-Walker at Brigham Young University made an interesting research Ã¢â¬ She recently found that having affectionate siblings helped kids, ages 10 to 14, feel less lonely and depressed and act more generouslyÃ¢â¬ (Sohn). It proves the already mentioned statement that siblings are learning how to be generous just by living together. Here is another important statement that she makes,Ã¢â¬ If parents only have one child, they will just have to work a little harder to give children those opportunities (Laura Padilla-Walker)Ã¢â¬ (Sohn).I think these words would be true about Penelope working hard to establish good social skills in her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. I assume that all the credit gets Penelope for growing a fine son like Telemachus, but maybe it happened thank s to EurycleiaÃ¢â¬â¢s care and love. Eurycleia is on OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ nurse. Nonetheless, there is no clear answer in here. Interesting facts were published in North American Journal of Psychology. Ã¢â¬Å"Adult siblings can be essential resource for support, love and friendship (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich). This many studies supporting my idea that having a sibling is so many ways beneficial. When siblings do not have a good relationship with their parents, they tend to overcompensate by having a supportive relationship with one another. Support and warmth is different between men and women (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich). This makes me believe that Telemachus would be even closer with his sibling because they both would share the pain of growing up without father. Ã¢â¬Å"Living through traumatic life experiences together makes the sibling bond strongerÃ¢â¬ (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich), that would be living in a house that is invaded by suitors in Telemachus' case.The resear chers found out about Ã¢â¬Å"the Ã¢â¬Ëlove and hate' pattern that frequently occurs in the sibling relationshipÃ¢â¬ (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich). But Ã¢â¬Å"positive outcomes can result from rivalryÃ¢â¬ such as Ã¢â¬Å"learning how to share and compromiseÃ¢â¬ (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich). I would like to summarize the whole article. The studies made are showing that Ã¢â¬Å"overall, most participants reported that rivalry peaked in either childhood or adolescense normal), and then declines in adulthood as siblings come back together as friendsÃ¢â¬ (Van Volkom, Machiz and Reich).I think this research is supporting my two previous researches and brings up new facts to think about. There was a moment in The Odyssey that simply shows why it is good to have a sibling in this life. Bright-eyed Athena decided to help Penelope by cheering her up and encouraging her. Athena creates a phantom of PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Iphthime, then phantom enters PenelopeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. So Penelope is dreaming, tired of endless crying, and suddenly her beautiful sister, the person she can trust and believe, is in her dream.And so Athena inspires her, Ã¢â¬Å"Your son will still come home Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s decreetÃ¢â¬ ¦He travels with such an escort, one that other would pray to stand beside them. She has power-Pallas AthenaÃ¢â¬ (4. 907-932). These words spelled from her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s lips inspired her like nothing else in the world. Athena reached deep into her heart, bringing love there and flaring a small light of hope into a huge fire of belief. Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to have somebody to remind you about how beautiful life is and that you are not alone because you have your wonderful brother or sister. Now, imagine Telemachus growing up with his older brother.Finally he has somebody to talk to, but I think Telemachus would be blaming his brother in the same in what he is blaming suitors and gods. Here is what he says to his mother, Ã¢â¬Å"why, mother/wh y deny our devoted bard the chance to entertain us any way the spirit stirs him on? Bards are not to blame Ã¢â¬â Zeus is to blame. He deals to each to each and every laborer on this earth whatever doom he pleasesÃ¢â¬ (1. 395-403). Maybe he would accuse his older brother of not protecting their mother. It might also happen so he would proceed with AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s plan behind his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s back.But otherwise, I think Telemachus would die for his brother, here what he says when he is protecting his father,Ã¢â¬ Ctesippus, you can thank your lucky stars you missed our guest Ã¢â¬â he ducked your blow, by god! Else I would have planted my sharp spear into your bowelsÃ¢â¬ ¦and IÃ¢â¬â¢d rather die, yes, better that by far then have to look on at your outrage day by dayÃ¢â¬ (20. 340-354). Telemachus is brave, though he grew up without father or sibling, but I can only imagine how much more courage he would have gained having his older brother by his side. Maybe they wo uld be plotting the same plan on how to get rid of suitors together.Of course, it all depends on what kind of person his brother would be. Just a little different situation would occur if Telemachus suddenly happened to have a younger brother or sister. Definitely, he would not sit around with suitors, as he does day by day. He complains to Athena,Ã¢â¬ Soon Ã¢â¬â you wait Ã¢â¬â theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll grind me down as wellÃ¢â¬ (1. 293) He would have never said that if he would have clear goal to protect what is precious to him. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like a duty of older brother. He would understand he must act in order to save the future of his sibling.I would like to add two more qualities that can be learned being a brother from my own personal experience. I am an older brother to my two sisters five and six years old. Beside that IÃ¢â¬â¢m an older cousin to my two other cousins. We were three boys growing up together. Being an older brother is learning how to be patient. I was growing up with only one sister. But even that one was enough. Looking after that small yo-yo takes nerves made of steel. From love the patience is born. And through patience a lot of things can be forgiven. Things like, turning off my computer while IÃ¢â¬â¢m playing my favored video game, which my sister enjoyed to do.As for being an older cousin a different lesson is taught. I did hurt my younger cousins and I do pity it a lot by now. I wish I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be so harsh older brother as I was. When you have power over others it takes time to understand how to not overuse it. After doing a research and looking into TelemachusÃ¢â¬â¢ character I can surely say he would be a great brother. He would team up with his older sibling against suitors. Be it a brother, they would make a plan on how to slaughter suitors. If a sister, they would look for some help outside or maybe in some tricky way would have poisoned them.If a sibling would be a strong person, Telemachus would double his or her qualities making them twice stronger and wiser. If a sibling would be weak person, Telemachus would be ready to take over the responsibilities. In a last situation the sibling having a reckless life would have caused Telemachus into even greater depression. Having a younger sibling would bring great benefits to Telemachus. He would gain qualities like supportiveness, patience and self-confidence. Because he would be in care of somebody he would become more reliable. He would be more responsible for his words and he would support his words with actions.If he had an older sister she would give him a good emotional support. Overall, Telemachus would become a man that is ready to accept and fight off his problems in a manly manner. In general having a sibling is most likely to have a positive effect on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. This belief is so strong in our society that many couples decide to give birth to a second child. Nowadays studies prove that sibling relationship is not that e asy. Usually there is a lot of rivalry going on between siblings in adolescence, but it mostly results in strengthening the bond between siblings.Other studies are trying to prove that only child is happier and performs better in school, but my opinion is growing up with sibling is a lesson that is priceless in a school called Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ . I value the siblingÃ¢â¬â¢s experience 5 times higher than only child having a happy childhood. So might some of us that grew up as only child have to think to themselves: Ã¢â¬Å"Do I have to catch up with those people who grew up with a siblingÃ¢â¬ ? Works Cited Falbo, Tony Ã¢â¬Å"The One-Child Family in the United States: Research Issues and ResultsÃ¢â¬ Studies in Family Planning Vol. 13, No. 6/7 (Jun. Ã¢â¬â Jul. , 1982), pp. 12-215 Web. 11 of April 2012 Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin Classics, 1996. Print. Senior, Jennifer Ã¢â¬Å"101-Year-Old Married CoupleÃ¢â¬ www. nymag. com (2009): n. page Web. 4 of April 2012 Ã¢â¬Å"Sibling RelationshipÃ¢â¬ , N. A. www. faqs. com (2012): n. page Web. 4 of April 2012 Sohn, Emilie Ã¢â¬Å"Only Child Syndrome a MythÃ¢â¬ news. discovery. com (2010): n. page Web. 4 of April 2012 Van Volkom, Michel , Machiz, Carly and Reich, Ashley E. Ã¢â¬Å"Sibling Relationship in College yearsÃ¢â¬ North American Journal of Psychology; 2011, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p35-50, 16p, 1 Chart, Web. 11 of April 2012