Friday, December 27, 2019
Memorable Monuments Now a day there is a lot of controversy on whether or not some monuments should be kept up or taken down, or if they should even be put up in the first place. There are many different ways to memorialize a person or an event. Such as having a day to remember the person the monument was built for and having a monument built in memory of the people who actually deserve them. Most monuments should be treated with the utmost respect because of their meaning. They can also be placed on a sacred site or a historical landmark for a specific reason. When creating a monument you really have to think about the present and the future of the monument. Even though monuments can have a good or bad meaning to them it s not aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The people who put these monuments up did not tell the story about how these slaves were beaten to death and treated with not even a piece of equality. They showed the story of, about how these people were Ã¢â¬Å"heroesÃ¢â¬ who Ã¢â¬Å"foughtÃ¢â ¬ for America when in reality all they really did was fight against it. Monuments like this that disrespected the past should be taken down because it is offensive and very disrespectful to the future today and to the people who it affected in the past. Instead of making monuments about people who did bad things in the past, they should make monuments about people who suffered in the past and they should be honored. Moreover monuments are placed on a Ã¢â¬Å"sacred siteÃ¢â¬ or a historical landmark for a reason. Location is one of the main factors companies have to consider when building a monument. For example, sometimes some monuments such as the MLK one in Washington D.C. was placed there because that is where he gave his most famous Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a Dream,Ã¢â¬ speech. In Source B (Christopher Columbus) the Christopher Columbus statue was put in RiverSide, PA not necessarily because that s where he made history, but because the town felt it was necessary to honor him. In Source A it states that the Lincoln memorial was not put up when Lincoln was alive and it was also made by a river. Even though the location isShow MoreRelatedWhy Monuments Should Be Treated With Utmost Respect?1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMemorable Monuments Now a days there is a lot of controversy on whether or not some monuments should be kept up or taken down, or if they should even be put up in the first place. There are many different ways to memorialize a person or an event. Such as having a day to remember the person the monument was built for and having a monument built in memory of the people who actually deserve them. Most monuments should be treated with the utmost respect because of their meaning. They can also be placedRead MoreAnalysis Of Cat In The Rain By Ernest Hemingway1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe bonds between men and women varied across the world in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, with certain countries embracing women within society, yet other countries saw women as nothing more than homemakers. In his time in Europe, Ernest Hemingway witnessed the utmost respect men had towards women. Yet when Hemingway arrived back in America he saw the misogynistic attitudes towards women and their movement for suffrage. Ernest HemingwayÃ¢ â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Cat in the rainÃ¢â¬ is the adventure of American women seeking suffrage in theRead MoreUrban Regeneration And Urban Development9597 Words Ã |Ã 39 Pagesclear understanding of the factors that are influential in creating and preserving the same for the upcoming urban developments in City of Pune. 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The hotels banquet hall was chosen as a place to hold the press meeting, favored for its size and its many exits. Knowing no crowd, or nowhere outside Utopia was to be trusted, the aide did his utmost to protect Lawrences safety and his own. He found a room granting an easy escape should they be made to flee at a moments notice. Lawrence took his place behind a podium that strained beneath the weight of a mound of microphones. The room became excited with flashbulbs the moment he becameRead MoreShivaji Maharaj8072 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesright moves were at stake and were thoroughly tested and sharpened. Shivaji never had to face such an enemy in his entire lifetime like Sambhaji. This feat demands immense patience and will power. Therefore, given the fight that Sambhaji put forth, should we give weight age to adjectives like frivolous, incapable, impatient, and all other jargons used by Marathi chroniclers OR the adjectives used by Dutch and English as patient, and stubborn warrior is an individual choice. The personal character ofRead MoreEffects of Corruption in the Phil.14311 Words Ã |Ã 58 PagesPetty/administrative corruption involves small amounts for payments of routine public services to be delivered or expedited, or for payoffs for small infractions. While grand corruption causes more damage than petty corruption, this does not mean that nothing should be done to minimize petty corruption. But, whether grand or petty, both are considered evils of society and results to profound consequences that affect all of us. (Phil. Anti-Graft Commission) As one of the oldest and most perplexing phenomenonRead MoreThe Philippine Architecture: Spanish Colonial Period18287 Words Ã |Ã 74 Pagesother places have; - (GOLD) and most especially, the GLORY, fame, and power that they wanted to posses for them to become the most powerful individuals in the world. Racial competition and intellectual competition occurred during that century, which is why the Spaniards wanted to prove to themselves that they are the best through conquering other places. The Laws of the Indies and its Implications The Laws of the Indies are the entire body of laws issued by the Spanish Crown for its American and PhilippineRead MoreBrand Building Blocks96400 Words Ã |Ã 386 PagesBRAND BUILDING BLOCKS Building Strong Brands: Why Is It Hard? It is not easy to build brands in today s environment. The brand builder who attempts to develop a strong brand is like a golfer playing on a course with heavy roughs, deep sand traps, sharp doglegs, and vast water barriers. It is difficult to score well in such conditions. Substantial pressures and barriers, both internal and external, can inhibit the brand builder. To be able to develop effective brand strategies, it is useful toRead MoreBhopal Gas Disaster84210 Words Ã |Ã 337 PagesBill, it would be better to withdraw it and bring in a new legislation that incorporated the recommendations. The Cabinet also gave its nod for signing an agreement with Kuwait for avoidance of double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion in respect of taxes on income and cleared a proposal for India to join the memorandum of understanding on the conservation and management of marine turtles and their habitats in the Indian Ocean and South East Asia. Hindu / Delhi 06/04/06 Bhopal victims step
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Violent crime statistics are continually increasing over time, and there are a wide variety of factors that contribute to this. One influencing factor would be the media. Media and violence are both very wide and broad concepts that have massive impacts in our society, and it is important to distinguish their relationship with each other. The types of media are things such as violent video games, films, newspapers, magazines and television. One particular type of media that is often very problematized is violent video games. Different studies have shown convincing and unconvincing correlational in regards to the media and violence, but to whom do we believe? The media, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern society surrounds us all the time. It affects our daily lives and has become part of our everyday routines, which is why it has such a huge impact on us, and violent media is everywhere. It is known that by the time we get to our eighteenth birthday, we will have seen and witnessed about 200,000 violent acts and about 16,000 murders (Media Education Foundation, 2005). There have been ongoing controversial debates as to whether violent media exposure contributes to violent and aggressive behaviours and whether one is caused by the other. Violence includes, but is not limited to things such as murder, assault, homicide, shootings, property offence, rape and assault. The mainstream and popular notion has been that violent video games make people more aggressive and desensitized toShow MoreRelatedMedia, Violence, And Violence Essay1949 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswould be the media. Media and violence are both very wide and broad concepts that hav e massive impacts in our society, and it is important to distinguish their relationship with each other. The types of media are things such as violent video games, films, newspapers, magazines and television. One particular type of media that is often very problematized is violent video games. Different studies have shown convincing and unconvincing correlational in regards to the media and violence, but to whomRead MoreMedia Violence and Violence in Society1059 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprogramming contains some violence, there should be more and more violent crime after television is availableÃ¢â¬ (Freedman). Many suggest the violence in media is causing violence in society but then how is it that violent crimes are actually decreasing in the United States. The violence that is occurring is actually due from the mentally ill, poor parenting, and the location of where one lives in society. Violence has actually decreased over the decades even though media has more violence than ever beforeRead MoreMedia Violence1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesat looking at the potentially harmful effects of the consumption of violent media and the impact it has on psychological factors. Two psychological factors that have been researched are empathy and aggression and how violent media influences these two emotions. Theories that have tried explaining the pathway from the viewing of violence in media and the impact on aggression have generally focused on the role of violent media being used by consumers as observational learning and promoting the developmentRead MoreMedia Violence And The Media Essay864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesExposure to the media violence may be especially problematic in late adolescence. Television and other media play a major role in adolescent socialization and identity development by providing perspectives, values, ideologies, and behavior models (Arnett G., Roberts D. et al.). The socializing role of television in particular may be ampliÃ¯ ¬ ed by the large amount of time young people spend with this medium. SpeciÃ¯ ¬ cally, 18- to 24-year-olds spend more time watching television and movies than youngerRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Behavioral Violence916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEffects of Media Violence on Behavioral Violence in Young Adults in America The influence of mass media has progressively increased in American society, but can the media have effects beyond mere entertainment and impartial information? American culture has become saturated with online news reports, social media, and media entertainment. Technology has become a major factor in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s social environment. Much of the information gained from digital sources involves or portrays violence, and manyRead MoreMedia Violence And Its Effects1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Media violence exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for aggression behavior for years. The impact of exposure to violence in the media the long term development and short term development of aggressive behavior has been documented. 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Scenes of betrayalRead MoreViolence in the Media Essay1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesViolence in the Media In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there is an endless amount of information available to people everywhere around the globe. Mass media is definitely shaping our world, whether it is in a positive way or a negative way. Television and the radio waves provide us with hours of entertainment. The emergence of the Internet allows us to access thousands of pages of information within the reach our very own fingertips. But with the convenience of all this information comes along a certain levelRead MoreThe Effects Of Violence On The Media1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe effect of violence in the media is a big controversy; some say it affects are society and others say that there is not any proof of this. There are many theories on how violence in media does, and how it does not, affect our society. Many people claim watching television or even playing video games will affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s or young adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ minds. Researches claim that they found no evidence of change in aggressiveness in children or young adults while playing video games. Researchers allowed childrenRead More Media Violence Essay1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhether it is right for their child to have access to this sort of violence: the kind found in most video games, television shows, and movies all over the world. But honestly, does it make a difference in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development as a productive member of society, and if so, can a parent really do anything about it? These are the questions that researchers of the subject hope to answer conclusively In order to understand how media violence has an effect on children, different variables must first be examined
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
The Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation issues permits for the bigger mountains while the Nepal Mountaineering Association issues permits for the smaller trekking peaks between 5,587 m and 6,654 m. Mountaineering Trekking Rock Climbing Rafting / Kayaking / Canoeing Jungle safari Hunting Bird Watching Paragliding / Ultralight / Cable Car Mountain Flights Mountain Biking Bungee Jumping / Canyoning Boating / Fishing / Angling Horse Riding / Pony Trek Golf Pilgrimage City Tours Nightlife / Clubbing Dining Shopping Events / Festivals MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition) Special Interest Adventure Sports amp; New Products http://welcomenepal. com/promotional/tourist-activities/mountaineering/ - Tourism History in Nepal Nepal is tourists heaven for adventure, cultural and environmental enrichment. Variation in natural landscape of Nepal consists of valleys and plains known as Terai in the south, and the breathtaking Himalayan peaks in the north add great flavor for tourist. Though exact date and history of tourist incoming to Nepal is still unknown, it can be assumed that first tourist started coming to Nepal only after first road system was built in 1950 that connect some of the Nepals cities with Indian boarder in the south. Since then international tourists flow to explore NepalÃ¢â¬â¢s rich cultures, picturesque Himalayan landscape. George Mallory and Andrew Sandy Irvine who had disappeared in 1924 in an attempt to conquer Everest. However it was on In 1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa first conquered Mt. Everest (8848 m). Till now several people has attempted and successfully conquered the worlds highest mountain. Annapurna I was the first 8,000-metre (26,200 ft) peak to be climbed. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of a French expedition led by Maurice Herzog (including Lionel Terray, Gaston Rebuffat, Marcel Ichac, Jean Couzy, Marcel Schatz, Jacques Oudot, Francis de Noyelle), reached the summit on 3 June 1950. Its summit was the highest summit attained on Earth for three years, until the first successful ascent of Mount Everest. However, higher non-summit points at least 8,500 meters (27,900 ft)-had already been attained on Everest in the 1920s. ) In the mid 1950 small groups of wealthy individuals, sponsored students travel east from England by Land Rover or Bedford Dormobile to climb mountains or carry out scientific studies and surveys, often publishing accounts of their travels afterwards. They travel overland and their trails follow Western Europe crossing Turkey, Iran, Afgha nistan, Kasmir, Manali and Kathmandu till Goa, India. They travel through buses and stay in cheap hotels along their trails and love to socialize with local people and food. They passes journey of over 6,000 miles in each direction, and it took in high mountain passes, scorching deserts, and some very rough roads. During 70s Nepal became safe tourism destination for those groups due to its perfect climate, peaceful place and unique cultures. Many reasons had attracted these groups for traveling like spiritual enlightenment escape from wars in the west and rigid lifestyles, some for business or still some just wanted to explore and see the world. They were simply great adventure lovers and were known as Hippies of 70s. These group of people were known as Hippies or freak. In some way or the other they have great contribution of introducing Nepal as one of the best travel destination. Eventually, people in Nepal started opening hotels, resort, western restaurants with modern facilities to attract the tourist. Modern tourist activities in Nepal included Trekking, Rafting, Peak climbing, Wildlife safari and many more adventure sports like Bungy jumping, paragliding ,mountain climbing, mountain flight etc. Nepal has always attracted and become best tourist destination in the world mainly due to their excellent hospitality, friendly people, unique cultures and awe-inspiring Himalayas and mountains. Nepal Tour packages Nepal Historical Culture Tour 05 Days 4 nights/ 5days customized tour itinerary for Nepal historical and cultural tour Best Nepal Tour 10 Days Nepal best tour package for 9 nights/10 days which is customized by Nepal Mountain Tour 15 Days Nepal mountain tour most of destination is mid hill region for 15 days Nepal Experience Tour 14 Days 13 nights/14 days Nepal experience tour takes you to experience real Nepal Nepal Pilgrimage Tour 12 Days 11 nights/12days Customized Tour Package Best Nepal Combo Tour 10 Days Sightseeing-Hiking-Rafting-Safari, 10 days Customized Tour Package Nepal family holiday 11 Days Nepal family holiday for 11 days is suitable for any age group of family Buddhist pilgrimage tour 8 days 08 Days Buddhist pilgrimage tour in Nepal is popular for among the travelers those Lumbini tour 11 Days Lumbini tour is targeted for those travelers who want real peace and spiritual enlightenment. Complete Buddhist Circuit Tour 12 Days 12 days Complete Buddhist circuit tour, Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Sarnath amp; Kushinagar Annapurna Region Trekking Annapurna base camp trekking 11 Days Annapurna Base Camp trek offers magnificent views, easy walks. Annapurna circuit trekking 15 Days Annapurna circuit trekking covers approximately 200 km trekking trail Annapurna Sanctuary Trek 09 Days Annapurna Sanctuary Trek offers magnificent views and easy walks Classic Annapurna Base Camp Trek 09 Days Classic Annapurna base camp trekking journey to Annapurna offers Classic Annapurna Circuit Trek 12 Days Classic Annapurna Circuit trek is approximately 200 km trek.. Classic Tilicho Lake Trek 19 Days Classic Tilicho Lake Trek joint together along the same.. Ghorepani Poon Hill trekking 10 Days Ghorepani Poon Hill trekking trail is one of the most visited areas Muktinath Jomsom Trek 14 Days Muktinath Jomson Trek made more popular due to easy accessibility Jomsom Muktinath Overland Tour 12 Days Jomsom Muktinath Overland Tour to this region made more popular Tilicho Lake Trek 19 Days Tilicho Lake Trek combined with Classic Annapurna Circuit trail. Trishuli Rafting Annapurna Trek amp; Jungle Safari 14 Days Trishuli Rafting Annapurna Trek amp; Jungle Safari here we have Ghorepani Ghandruk trekking 12 Days Ghorepani Ghandruk trek route is one of the most visited areas of Annapurna trail http://www. himalayanmentor. com/tourism-history-in-nepal. html - Nepal General Information Nepal is an outstanding multi adventure destination on the planet with its unique geographical kaleidoscope variations. The country is home of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s highest mountain including Mt Everest and other thousand of mountains higher than 6000m. It is also birth place of Lord Buddha and GurkhasÃ¢â¬â¢ homeland country where travelers can experience and enjoy their exotic holiday undoubtedly difference. CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing geographical orientations are the main natural rewards so the adventure seekers get more opportunities than their quest of challenge. Besides, Nepal is a fascinating land of ancient history, vibrant culture of tolerant people and home of living Goddess. Since 1950s when its borders were first opened to the outside world, the abode of the Himalayas, Nepal, offers probably the best trekking holiday, extreme mountain climbing, adrenaline river run, wonderful wildlife safari activities, historical-cultural sightseeing tours and many other adventure holiday options. Visiting remotes of countryside exploring there traditional peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life style and encountering their culture make you to feel precious insight into fast disappearing world and embark on truly life-enhancing journey of discovery. Fact Figures of Nepal Location: South Asian Region, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Tibet Autonomous Region in the north, and India in the South, East and West and geographically Nepal is located between 800 4- 800 12 east longitude and 260 22- 300 4 north latitude. Total Area: 147, 181 Square Kilometer (about 200 Km width north to south amp; 885 km east to west) Area Covered on Earth: 0. 01% of Earth amp; 0. 1% of Asia Geography: 64% Mid-Hill Mountain (Mahabharat Range), 6% Churia Hill( Siwalik Range), 13% Plain Land of Terai, 17% Himalayan Alpine Region approximately Time Difference: + 5:45 of GMT National Language: Nepali National Greeting: Namaste (means I salute the divine in you) Sea Port: None, Landlocked by India south, east and west and by ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Tibet Autonomous Region in the north Population: 29. million, according to year of 2009 estimation Religion: Multi Religious Country (about 80% Hindu, 10% Buddhist, 4% Muslim amp; 6% others religious) People: More than 60 ethnic groups and about 70 different spoken languages Culture: Multi Culture Country Source of Economy: Traditional Agriculture, Tourism amp; Cottage Industry Main Highlights: Mt Everest 8848m amp; Birth Place of Lord Buddha (Lumbini) Political System: The Multi-Party System amp; Federal Democratic Republic since 2008 Passport amp; Visas: All the travelers should have valid passport for at least six months and visa can be obtain from Nepalese embassy or consulate in your country, however visa is stamp at the time of arrival in Airport. Children bellow 10 years need not pay any visa fee. Travelers willing to get entry visa at the air port or at any entry points in Nepal are required to fill a visa form with passport and photographs while passing through the immigration. Chinese citizen are requested to apply in the Nepalese embassy or other Nepalese diplomatic missions as there is no provisions of on arrival visa for them. Transit visa Transit visa can be obtained from the Airport Immigration Office for a period of 48 hours on presentation of confirmed air ticket. Visa Fee * Gratis visa for 30 days available only for tourists of SAARC countries * Multiple entry 15 days US$ 25 or equivalent convertible currency * Multiple entry 30 days US$ 40 or equivalent convertible currency * Multiple entry 90 days US$ 100 or equivalent convertible currency Visa Extension . It can be extended at the Department of Immigration, Maitighar, Kathmandu. Visa extension fee for 15 days or less is US $ 30 or equivalent convertible currency and visa extension fee for more than 15 days is US$ 2 per day * Tourist visa can be extended for a maximum period of 150 days in a single visa year (January Ã¢â¬â December). Currency amp; Exchange NepalÃ¢â¬â¢s official currency is the Nepalese Rupees. Nepalese Rupees are found in denominations of 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1. Coins are found in denominations of Rs. 5, Rs. 2, Rs. 1 and 50 paisa. One rupee equals 100 paisa. All Major Banks, hotels, and the exchange counters in Kathmandu, Pokhara Chitwan and other touristic towns provide services for exchanging foreign currency. However, only 10 percent of the total amount may be converted by the bank. ATM is widely in use in Kathmandu and other cities. Foreign Currency and Credit Card Credit cards like American Express, Master and Visa are widely accepted at major hotels, shops, travel- trekking agencies and restaurants. Remember to keep your Foreign Exchange Encashment Receipt while making foreign exchange payments or transferring foreign currency into Nepalese rupees. Time and Off Day Nepal Standard Time is 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of GMT and 15 minutes ahead of Indian standard time. Saturday is the official off-day in Nepal and all the Nepal Government offices remain closed. http://www. himalayanmentor. com/nepal-general-information. html http://images. search. conduit. com/ImagePreview/? q=number%20of%20tourist%20arrival%20in%20nepal%20in%20tableamp;ctid=CT3289075amp;searchsource=10amp;CUI=UN34246542992609027amp;UM=1amp;start=0amp;pos=4 http://images. search. conduit. com/ImagePreview/? =number%20of%20tourist%20arrival%20in%20nepal%20in%20tableamp;ctid=CT3289075amp;searchsource=10amp;CUI=UN34246542992609027amp;UM=1amp;start=0amp;pos=4 http://images. search. conduit. com/ImagePreview/? q=number+of+tourist+arrival+in+diagramin+nepalamp;ctid=CT3289075amp;SearchSource=10amp;FollowOn=trueamp;PageSource=ImagePreviewamp;SSPV=amp;CUI=UN34246542992609027amp;UP=amp;UM=1amp;start=0amp;pos=16 About Nepal| | General Information about Nepal Official name: Nep al Adhirajya (Kingdom of Nepal) Area: 147. 181 Square km Population: 23. 5 million Capital: Kathmandu Political System: Multiparty Democracy with Constitutional Monarch Language: Nepali, English Religious Groups: Hindus (89. 5%), Buddhists (5. 3%), Muslims (2. 7%), Jains (0. 1%), Christians and others (0. 023%) Currency: Nepalese Rupee (NR)| | | Right click on image to zoom in| | National Holiday: 07 July (Birthday of the King)Information about Nepal Nepal is the only Hindu kingdom in the world. Nepal is spread across the main heights of the Himalayas and has always been a land of fascination. Nepal is a land of great contrasts with high Himalayan mountains, vast and icy glaciers, tiny houses, ancient history, artistic monuments, exotic wildlife sanctuaries, greenery and diverse cultures. It is the land where Lord Buddha was born over 2,500 years ago. Nepal is rectangular in shape, landlocked and covers an area of 147,181 square km. Nepal is situated between Tibet in the north and India in the South and has thus produced a remarkable mixture of people and culture thus offering a fascinating diversity of ethnic and cultural groups. After Nepals long period of isolation Kathmandu has become the gateway to Nepal. The Kathmandu Valley is the cultural and political centre of Nepal. The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu. About half a million people lives in Kathmandu. Every aspect of Nepali life can be seen in Kathmandu, which is the center of travel and adventure activities. The Kathmandu Valley is magnificent for its wealth of unique temples. Nepali is the official language of Nepal and is spoken by most of the people. Till 1951, Nepal was a closed book for foreign visitors. Till 1964, it was reserved only for hardy climbers and explorers. In recent years, the country has opened its doors to foreign and Indian tourists and millions of them visit this country every year. The experiences of the travelers who visit the Nepal for the first time are very different. Some of the tourists feels like stepping out of a time machine, some are thrilled by the pleasant atmosphere, while, some of them feel like living in a permanently air-conditioned state. Nepal can be visited throughout the year and in any season. | Ã | History of Nepal In the earlier days, Nepal was divided into small principalities which were fighting against each other. It was not till the arrival of the Mallas from north India that Nepal was launched into its first flowering of social and artistic creativity. The Mallas also took control of a major part of Nepal and Tibet. But, pattern of small, independent kingdoms continued and Nepal could not be unified. The Mallas had three separate kingdoms in the Kathmandu Valley itself, with their capitals at Kathmandu, earlier known as Kantipur, Patan, known as Lalitpur and Bhadgaon, known as Bhaktpur. The Mallas left their stone inscriptions in temples and carved them on the bases | | | of statues. As the Mallas grew weaker due to family feuds, they were replaced by the Shahs. It was during the rule of King Prithvi Narayan Shah (1730-75) that Nepal became more unified. He came from the Gurkha region. He was the first to use these tough fighters to strengthen his rule. The Gurkhas are still valued as great fighters and a large number of them are serving in the Indian and British armies. The King Prithvi Narayan Shah was responsible for the exclusion of European traders from the country. As the Shah dynasty became weak, the Ranas took over Nepal in 1846. The monarch only became a figurehead while the Ranas ruled the country. Nepal lost war to the British in 1857 and accepted their nominal allegiance. As a result, the Gurkhas fought several wars for Great Britain. They sided with them during the first War of Indian Independence in 1857. The British were so pleased with their loyalty that they returned some of the territories they had occupied after the defeat of the Nepalese. Subsequently, the Gurkhas fought other battles for Britain, including World War I amp; II. They fought in all parts of the World. After a popular revolution made by the ninth King Tribhuvan of Shah dynasty in 1950-51, the Ranas were defeated. The King Tribhuvan died in 1955 and was succeeded by his son Mahendra. Nepal became a member of the United Nations in 1955. The King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was the 10th king in the dynasty. The King Birendra abolished party system. In 1990, a popular democratic revolt led to the re-establishment of a multi-party democratic system based on adult franchise. The new democratic Constitution of the kingdom was promulgated on November 9, 1990. The king remains the titular head of the government. In 1994, Nepal elected communist party to form the government which has since been replaced by coalition government. Geography of Nepal Nepal is bounded in the north by Tibet Ã¢â¬â the autonomous region of China, in the east by Sikkim and West Bengal, in the south by Bihar and in the west by Uttar Pradesh. The land extends approximately for 885 km from east to west, and 193 km from north to south. The land in Nepal can be broadly divided into three regions which are Himalayan region, Mountain region and Terai region. The altitude of the Himalayan Region ranges between 4877 metres and 8848 metres with the snow-line running around 4877 metres. It includes all the major peaks of the Himalayas. The mountain region covers about 64 percent of the total land area of the country. It is formed by the Mahabharata Range which soar up to 4877 metres. The lowland Terai region lies at an altitude of 305 metres and occupies about 17 per cent of land area. Kachanakawal, the lowest point in the country, has an altitude of only 70 metres. It is located in Jhapa district of eastern Terai. The land rises from the Terai, the southern plains covered with tropical jungles and fertile farm land at almost sea level to the high Himalaya mountains in the north with valleys and lush hills in between within a distance of less than 200 km. The lowlands of the Terai are about one hundred metres above sea level. This, together with monsoon rains along the slopes facing south has resulted in compacting virtually all climate zones on the earth. Except the Terai region in the extreme south, the mid-valleys are seldom higher than 1220 metres above sea-level. Out of the ten peaks, eight highest peaks lies in Nepal. The Himalayas are the youngest and the highest mountain chains in the world. About a third of its 1000 km. long Himalayan range lies within Nepal. It has a convergence of 1310 magnificent pinnacles and peaks over 6000 metres including the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s eight of the 14 giant peaks over 8000 metres high. Mount Everest, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s highest peak and Kanchanjunga, the third highest peak lies in Nepal. The other six peaks in Nepal are Lohtse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manalsu and Annapurna I. Some of these unconquerable mountain peaks provide a vivid contrast with hand-sculpted landscape of farms in mountain valleys. | Ã | Flora and Fauna in Nepal Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitudinal variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60m above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at 8,848 m, all with in a distance of 150 km resulting into climatic conditions from Sub-tropical to Artic. Nepal, occupying only 0. 1% of the earth is home to 2% of all the flowering plants in the world, 8% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population of birds (more than 848 species), 4% of mammals on earth, 11 of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 15 families of butterflies (more than 500 species), 600 indigenous plant families, 319 species of exotic orchids. Climate in Nepal Nepal is a land of extreme contrasts as far as the climatic conditions are concerned. Nepal has four major seasons, namely, Winters from December to February, Spring from March to May, Summers from June to August, Autumn from September to November. The climate in Nepal ranges from the subtropical | | | monsoon conditions in the Terai region to cool temperate conditions in the higher areas and an alpine climate with snow and extreme day temperature in the mountains. As Nepal is situated in the northern hemisphere, so during the summers, it is the rainy season in Nepal. The monsoon lasts across the whole country from June to September when over 75% of the annual rainfall occurs. The amount of rainfall decreases from south to north and from east to west. The Mahabharat Lekh forces the moist monsoon air stream to rise that causes heavy rains on the hills in the south, especially in the Terai region. The Spring season is warmer than the autumn. In the high mountains in winters, the temperature drops below zero, while in the Kathmandu valley, daytime temperature rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius. Pokhara is lower and warmer and more pleasant than Kathmandu in winter but hotter, more humid and less comfortable in summer. The post-monsoon period from October to November is characterized by settled weather, clear skies, no rain and moderately high temperatures. As winter approaches it gets cooler, especially at night. This is an ideal time to visit Nepal. Nepal can be visited the whole year round. Light weight clothing is recommended for May through October. Warm garments are required in October Ã¢â¬â March. An umbrella or a raincoat is a must for the rainy season. | Ã | Ã °C| Jan| Feb| Mar| Apr| May| June| July| Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | Dec. Day| 22| 24| 26| 29| 28| 28| 31| 30| 31| 28| 26| 23| Night| -5| -1| -2| 6| 7| 8| 10| 18| 19| 14| 5| -3| Rainfall| 1| 5| 2| 6| 10| 15| 21| 20| 12| 4| 1| 0| | | Economy of Nepal Nepal is primarily an agricultural country. About 90% of the population is engaged in agriculture, and there are very little industries. The Terai region occupies 23% of the land area and contains 42% of the population, is the most productive region. It accounts for over 80% of Nepa lÃ¢â¬â¢s rice, and 65% of its wheat. Cash crops like sugar cane, jute, tobacco and tea also important. The Hill region occupies 43% of the area and contains 50% of the population. The fertile Kathmandu Valley contains 10% of the hill population and is the center of government. The mountain region occupies 34% of area, but only 8% of its people. This region is inhabited by the pastoral nomads. Most hill and mountain farm households own livestock whose main contribution to human existence is through their provision of manure and draught labour. A small surplus of grain and industrial products are exported to India. Carpet, jute, brick, sugar, cigarette, saw mill, rice mill, oil mill, beer and garments are the major industries. Tourism is one of the biggest foreign exchange earners. | Ã | People of Nepal Nepal has more than 61 ethnic groups and 70 spoken languages. It is believed that the first inhabitants of Nepal were Mongoloid or Tibetan who migrated to the fertile valleys in the south. They were mainly Buddhists who follow the Tantric rituals of Tibetan Buddhism. In the early centuries of the Christian era, they were joined by Indo-Aryans or Hindus from northern India, who took the charge of the country. They were followed by the Lichhivis who were Buddhists converted by Lord Buddha himself. The people were charming, naturally friendly and virtually untouched by the social, political and commercial changes taking place beyond its borders. Those early travelers were effusive in their praise of this wonderful but economically backward land. Today, the different races and tribes of people | | | live in different regions of Nepal. They follow varied customs, traditions, wear different costumes and speak different languages. The Rais, Limbus, Magars and Gurungs mainly lives in the eastern mountains and on the southern slopes of Annapurna Himachulti and Ganesh Hamal. They are popularly known as the Gurkha soldiers. The Sherpas popularly known as Ã¢â¬Å"tigers of snowÃ¢â¬ live to a height of 4000 metres and are the tough mountain climbers. The Sherpas have easy access to Bhot (Tibet) for trade and social intercourse and therefore Tibetan influence on their culture and civilization remains distinct. The Newars and Tamangs mostly inhabit the Kathmandu valley. The Tharu and Dhimals live in the Terai region. Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris are spread over the hills and valleys. The midlands are inhabited by various Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan speaking hill and valley people. The people of Nepal mostly wear the handmade natural fiber cloth men and women in cotton, hemp, and wool. More Religion in Nepal About ninety per cent of the people are Hindus, 5. per cent are Buddhists, 3% are Muslims and the rest of the people comprises of other religion. Hinduism and Buddhism are the two major religions in Nepal. There is a complex blend of Hinduism and Buddhism in Nepal. Although a Hindu kingdom, all deities are worshipped by Hindus and Buddhists alike. A remarkable feature of the land is the mutual bond of friendship between the people of the two religions. Buddhists are mainly found along the northern border area and in the eastern part of the country. Hindus are found in the south and west and Muslims are mainly concentrated along the border with India. Festivals of Nepal The rich cultural heritage of Nepal is manifested by the diverse social customs and festivals. Some of the festivals which are celebrated in Nepal are Nepalese New Year, Linga Jatra or Bisket, Buddha Jayanti, the Red Machhendranath Rath Jatra, White Machhendranath Rath Jatra, Dhumji, Losar Festival, Gai Jatra, Desain, Durga Puja, Indra Jatra, Diwali and Shivaratri. More Languages of Nepal Most of the people speak the Nepali language. The Nepali is written in Devanagri script and is the official language of Nepal. Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang and Nepalbhasa are the various languages which are spoken by more than half a million people. English and Hindi are widely understood in the urban centers. Tourist Attractions in Nepal Nepal offers an incomparable scope to connoisseurs of art and culture to see and study the different aspects of fine arts in its painting, sculpture, woodcarving and architecture. The three main historic cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur with numerous historical monuments, old places and palace squares, shrines and temples, ageless traditions and legends make it a veritable living museum. The city of Nepal comprises of three royal cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. The tourist attractions in Nepal are Kathmandu, Nagarkot, Dhulikhel, Daman, Pokhra, Royal Chitwan National Park, Lumbini, Patan and Bhaktapur. The famous tourist attractions in Kathmandu are the Durbar Square, Swayambhunath Stupa, Bodhnath Stupa, Pashupatinath Temple, Temple of Living goddess Kumari and Changu Narayan temple. | Ã | Wildlife in Nepal The main vegetation found in the Terai region are deciduous forests. The sal and teak are the main trees that are found in the Terai region. The grasslands are found in the far west and smaller areas in the mid west. The wide variety of wildlife is also found in the national parks in the Terai region. There are few wild animals in the central zone because of the lack of forest and other natural vegetation. Nepal is also home of a wide range of bird life like Impeyan pheasant, mahseer, snowcock, snow partidge, choughs, buntings and redstart. The country has managed to preserve more endangered species of flora and fauna than any other area in Asia. Nepal has nine National Parks and three | | Wildlife Reserves, which include areas in the highest mountains in the world as well sub-tropical lowland of the plains. Some of the famous national parks are Bardia National Park, Chitwan National Park, Sukla Phanta National Park, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Everest National Park, Langtang National Park, Shey Ã¢â¬â Phoksundo National Park, Rara National Park, Khaptad National Park, Makalu Ã¢â¬â Barun National Park and Conservat ion Area, Annapurna, Manaslu Conservation Area, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve. More Entry Regulations in Nepal All the tourists, except the Indian nationals must have a valid passport and visa, before entering Nepal. But, now Indians traveling to Nepal by air have to show upon arrival at entry point either a passport, VoterÃ¢â¬â¢s Identity card issued by the Election Commission of India, or an identity card with photograph issued by the Nepal Ã¢â¬â based Indian diplomatic mission for identification of Indian nationals will also be considered in case of exceptions. Children under 10 years need not show any identification. Foreigner who intends to visit Nepal must hold valid passport or any travel document equivalent to passport issued by the Govt. for visiting a foreign country prior to apply for visa. No foreigner is entitled to enter into and stay in the Kingdom of Nepal without valid visa. The tourist visa can be obtained from any Royal Nepalese Embassy or Consulate valid for a period of 30 days. Visas can also be obtained for 15 days on arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu or at the other places. Chinese citizen are requested to apply in Royal Nepalese Embassy or other Nepalese diplomatic missions as there is no provision of on arrival visa for them. On arrival at the airport, you must produce the disembarkation card and fill up the embarkation card when you depart. All the tourists are also required to pay an airport tax. Currency in Nepal The main currency of Nepal is the Nepali rupees (NR). The facilities for converting foreign currency into the Nepali Rupees are available at the international airport, banks and hotels. The hotel bill can also be settled in the foreign currency. Tourists are also advised to obtain the encashment receipt in the exchange of foreign currency. It will help them to reconvert the leftover Nepali Rupees into dollars. The Indian Nationals can also bring the Indian rupees which can be easily accepted in the shops and hotels. Foreign currencies must be exchanged only through the banks or authorized foreign exchange dealers. The receipts from such transaction are to be obtained and retained. Customs Formalities All baggage must be declared and cleared through the customs on arrival at the entry. Personal effects are permitted free entry. A tourist may bring in dutiable goods, such as tobacco and liquors, within the prescribed quantity free of duty. Carrying narcotics, arms and ammunitions are strictly prohibited. Visitors can export souvenirs to their respective countries. The export of antiques requires special certificated from the Department of Archaeology, Kathmandu. Time in Nepal The time in Nepal is 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time and 15 minutes ahead of Indian Standard Time. | Ã | Cuisine of Nepal The cuisine of Nepal is similar to Indian cuisine. Some of the dishes are prepared in similar way like the Indian dishes. The Nepalese cuisine is quite simple. The cuisine varies according to ethnic groups and castes, depending on ingredients available and affordable. Indian, Chinese and Tibetan flavors and aromas can easily be detected in Nepalese meals although Nepals cuisine maintains its own flavour. Nepals climate has made it possible for the country to grow crops such as rice, lentils, wheat, corn and potatoes. In Nepal, rice is the most common food and in most of the hotels almost all the 3 meals comprise of rice. The menu comprises of varieties of | | | Indian, Chinese, Mexican, Italian and German dishes. The Nepali food is generally very spicy and hot. It is eaten without starters, soups or courses. Whilst Nepalese cuisine is somewhat basic, it certainly does not lack in flavor, make extensive use of spices and flavorings such as ginger, garlic, coriander, pepper, cumin, chilies, cilantro, mustard oil, ghee and occasionally yak butter. A typical Nepali meal consists of rice, at least one lentil curry called Dal, Bhat (rice), Sag (green vegetables), Tarkari (curried vegetables), chutneys, pickles and desserts. Juju Dau, Dahi or curd and Sikarni are various desserts. Most of the people in Nepal are vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes are not a part of the daily menu. Beef is typically not eaten in Nepal for religious reasons. Local liquor, tongba and thon (rice beer) are popular drinks of Nepal. Shopping in Nepal Kathmandu is a shoppers paradise. While roaming in the markets, one could see that Nepal is highly influenced by the Hinduism amp; Buddhism. All the masks, figures and various items are based on Hinduism and Buddhism. The most popular shopping items in Kathmandu are the Tibetan carpets, Jewellery, pottery, art and craft items, leather jackets, hand made belts, statues of Lord Buddha, wooden toys, decorated metal knives and varieties of hand-made garments like shawls, sweaters, trousers and caps. The customers can get a better bargain as the first price quoted is always higher than the price that will eventually be accepted for commodities. Accommodation in Nepal Nepal has every category of accommodation facilities. These range from the international standard star hotels to budget hotels and lodges. In order to have an assured quality service, it is advisable to use the facilities and services of government registered hotels, lodges, travel agencies, the licensed tour guides only and engage an authorized trekking guide or porter only through a registered travel or trekking agency. How to reach Nepal Nepal is adequately served by major international airlines besides its own national carrier Royal Nepal Airlines. Some of the airlines which operates flight to Kathmandu are China, Lufthansa German Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, Indian Airlines, Qatar Airways, Thai International and Singapore. It also operates flight to Europe, USA, India, China and Japan. The tourists can also enter into Nepal from India through the Terai region by a picturesque highway built by India. It is also not difficult to reach any part of Nepal through any means of transport, but there is no railway network within Nepal. All visitors entering Nepal by land must use no other entry points other than Kakarbhitta, Birgunj, Belhiya, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, Mahendra Nagar in the Nepal-India border and Kodari in the Nepal-China border. The overland tourists entering the Kingdom with
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Management Principles And Practice Management Principles and Practice II Research Assignment 2000 Michael Yates 990490O Although it is possible to adopt a fairly atheoritical, empirical approach to assessing personality, even psychologists make assumptions or have some preconceptions with regard to the expected outcome and nature of their research. Unfortunately, theories are often based on a minimum of actual observations of the objects of their efforts. At the very least, it should be recognised that some frame of reference, some conceptual guidelines can be helpful in assessing and explaining personality. It is obviously very important to have some explanation as to why people do the things they do and expectations of what they may do under certain circumstances. This becomes imperative when managing a business. Personality theories and personality-based assessment tools have a wide range of significant roles to play in the effective management of modern organisations. Not only do they enable and encourage employee self-assessment and self-awareness; they are also used as a selection tool in many organisations, and act as a guide for directing and interacting with employees. By knowing the employees' personality type, it is easier for management to identify whether employees will be suited to a certain type of job, enabling management to identify how employees will react to different situations and how they will go about solving problems. MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) The MBTI is based upon Carl Jung's theories about the nature of the psyche. Jung, one of the founders of psychoanalytical theory and practice, was an early colleague of Freud, and for a time was his designated successor. The two men, at first, had many ideas in common, but entirely dissimilar personalities. The friendship was gradually eroded when Jung's ideas differed more and more from Freud's. Jung suffered a breakdown, and during his recovery he attempted to understand the nature of his friendship he devised his theory of psychological types. Jung realised, first of all, that he was an Introvert whereas Freud was an Extravert. Jung's final theory suggested that personality typology was based on two things: Chance and Choice, or nature and nurture. In either case, as time goes on, one's true personality type emerges in terms of attitudes towards the world, and functional preferences about how to perceive the world and how to make judgements about it. This MBTI has been developed over thirty-five years of rigorous scientific validation and is the most widely used of any Personality Indicator. It is a very useful tool to enlarge and deepen our self-knowledge and understanding of our behaviour. The MBTI is a four-dimension model, measuring personality on 4 scales, with each scale representing two ends of a continuum of two preferences. There are therefore sixteen different combinations of letters corresponding to sixteen different and unique Personality Types. Three of the scales will tell the respondent their relative preferences for either I(ntroversion) or E(xtraversion), either S(ensing) or iN(tution) and either T(hinking) or F(eeling). So if the MBTI defines the respondent as EFN, they are an extravert with preferences for intuition and feeling. For each of the four scales, everyone uses both preferences at different times, but not both at once, and not, in most cases, with equal confidence. The fourth scale of the MBTI (the Perceiving-Judging scale) will tell the respondent whether they use their preferred perceiving function of their preferred judging function when dealing with the world (ie when being extraverted). Thus, if you are an ENFJ, the respondent is an extravert who uses the feeling function when being extraverted (ie most of the time), but probably uses intuition when being introverted: as the feeling function is the one you use most it will be called the dominant function. If you are an ENFP, then you use intuition when dealing with the world, and so your dominant function is intuition. However, the validity of this assessment has been questioned. Each question provides the subject with certain circumstances, and then questions the subject as to how they would respond. However, the answer may not correspond to how you always think, feel or behave. It may only sometimes be the case, and only in some particular circumstances. Often employers use the MBTI without qualified instructors. In order for the results to be valid for the employer,
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Worldviews and Culture The three worldviews governing international relations are: the system maintainer, system reformer and the system transformer. First, the system maintainer perspective is associated with strong political orientation. Critical in this worldview is the emergence of newly industrialized countries, which can pose a threat to the current dominance of US hegemony. This emergence might cause a chaotic relationship in the international system. Need essay sample on "Worldviews and Culture" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Given that those states who incorporates this view is anarchic in quality, the challenge that the system maintainer perspective may encounter is the probable resistance of some of the states in the internationalization trends. Another challenge for this worldview, is centered on its assumption that a state must be military equipped and superior, as this point has over the years gained negative feedbacks from the public. Until now, there are growing discontentment on the US pursuit for extra military power and its continuing involvement in wars. The second worldview is the system reformer. Critical in this worldview is its utopian character rather than being realist. The challenges posted to this worldview are towards really solidifying rival nations and create policies that shall manage conflicts in the global political arena and ensure equality among the rich and the poor. Another is the probability of linking nations to cooperate for the pursuit of common interests has always been questionable and it has never occurred in the past that nations work together for common interest, but rather for the benefit of their personal goals. The third world view is the system transformer. Critical in this worldview is its difficulty to assess if there are countries who can play the role of being a system transformer in its altruistic sense rather than being a fake. The challenges that this worldview faces is with regards to its little popularity in the global arena particularly in the US. Somehow, cooperation seems less appealing to the people and favors more an arms race to ensure political and economic stability through military supremacy. Another challenge is that, as this view works to save the Third World from conflicts, it is the case that Third World countries would always seem to favor being associated with First World countries even it would be detrimental to their economy because these underdeveloped countries would tend to seek for protection. The increasing popularity of internet as a means of globalization has widely affected the promotion of loyalty and maintenance of national identity. The advent of internet popularity has been used to manipulate and extract information that although some would serve useful to others, may mean detrimental to a nations culture. The discontentment of France for example towards the published articles and auctioned items in the internet which were vital to their historic heritage is a proof how can internet be used as an agent of cultural loyalty or disloyalty. The internet as it can be accessed by anyone, anywhere in the world is one of the most powerful tool in shaping the identity of an individual. The inability to restrict the information that can be shown in the internet may serve dangerous to others. Although there are facts that are to be well-gathered and disseminated, cultural relativism must always be employed. Restriction policy based on the cultural importance of certain facts must be properly guided. If a content of a certain article or feature can promote discontent or disillusionment towards the cultural membership of the people, they must be restricted from access or at least be regulated. Political culture plays a big role in the undertaking of this regulation. The politics of culture dictates which of the facts are detrimental to their culture or which of those can promote their identity and heritage, thus they can influence which of those should be restricted from access. Though, it must also be ensured that the facts stated will also render truthful information and shall not be biased towards other criticisms. Works Cited Lamy, Steven L. Challenging Hegemonic Paradigms and Practices: Critical Thinking and Active Learning Strategies for International Relations. October 8, 2007 http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/Lamy_APSA_2006.pdf Lamy, Steven L. ed. US Perspectives on the Soviet Union. Contemporary International Issues. 1988.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The World of Suzie Wong Paramount produced the film "The World of Suzie Wong" adapted from a best-selling novel written by Richard Mason in 1961. The film tells a love story between an American artist and a Hong Kong prostitute who overcome pride and prejudice and start a new stage of life. The story is set in Hong Kong in the late fifties of the last century.Robert Lomax is a middle-aged American architect. Tired of his routine, he takes a year off traveling to Hong Kong to pursue his dream of being an artist. He encounters an attractive girl on Hong Kong's Star Ferry to Kowloon, who pretends herself as coming from a wealthy family. Before he has a chance to learn about her, she disappears in the crowd. To save money, Robert checks into a cheap local Wan Chai hotel. To his astonishment, Robert finds that the hotel is actually a brothel, and he also spots the girl from the ferry and learns that she is not a rich girl as she said at all.SuzieIn fact, she's the most popular prostitute in the hotel, named Suzi e Wong. Robert works as a painter and Suzie is his model. They become friends and like each other. Suzie offers to be Robert's "permanent girlfriend", but Robert refuses. Their relationship grows increasingly complex.Thus, Suzie begins to date a British businessman named Ben Marlowe, who is a playboy separated from his wife. At the same time, Robert meets blonde beauty Kay O'Neill, a British banker's daughter. Kay falls in love with Robert and helps him to sell his paintings. She looks down on Suzie and is jealous of her relationship with Robert because he spends more time with Suzie than her. Robert doesn't really like Kay and Ben ends the relationship with Suzie. One...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
On the Issue of Debt - Essay Example This brief analysis will consider what this student believes to be the most pressing and important issue surround the seemingly ever-increasing levels of debt that both federal and state budgets are currently facing. Furthermore, as a function of this increase in overall debt, the negative externalities that such a change portends are vast and systemic. Whereas in previous times the degree and extent to which governments dealt with the issue of debt has always been a high concern for law-makers and citizens, the level and extent to which the current situation weights upon both the government decision makers and the electorate is unprecedented. As a result, the very nature of governance the degree to which this process encompasses nearly every aspect of society and the economy has only exponentially grown (Eichler 1216). For those that are concerned with the overall sovereignty and freedom of the society, this has naturally become a primal concern due to the fact that many nations are able to leverage the United States due to the level of its debt that they hold in the form of bonds and other financial mechanisms. Furthermore, as a function of these factors that have thus far been enumerated upon, this brief work will seek to elaborate upon some key mechanisms through which the problem itself can be lessened over time. The Simpson-Bowles committee put forward what many outside of the realm of politics would deem a fair approach to an infinitely complex issue. The mixed approach that this committee put forward hinged upon the need to make budget cuts, re-work the tax plan, secure Social Security, and reduce the size of the annual budget deficit. The reason that the plan was not latched on to by either political party is due to the fact that it required both an increase in tax revenue and a decrease in spending/budget cuts in order to make the goals that it defined (Croxson 103). These two mechanisms specifically are precisely what must be targeted for the federal (as well as state) budget deficits that currently exist to be minimized. As it is painfully clear, seeking to reduce and/or cancel budget deficits and debt in a relatively short period of time is beyond the realm of possibility. As a result of this, each political party and or leader wants to ignore the issue due to the fact that no political capital can ultimately be gained by seeking to fix an issue that they themselves nor their party will ever receive credit for; however, the larger issue is the fact that the debt crisis threatens the very sovereignty and vitality of the nation, its economy and society (Barth 98). The issue itself is not only a concern for future generations, although this is perhaps one of the greatest concerns that helps to define the size and scope of the problem. Rather, the issue weighs heavily on the way in which the government, both state, federal, and local, seek to provide key services to the communities which they serve. Rather than building more park s, maintaining infrastructure, and providing a litany of other adequate services, the government is forced to expend a large percentage of its annual budget (which itself is already over and above current tax receipts) to service the debt that currently exists. What this portends is a situation in which the government is borrowing money in order to pay the interest on the money that it is already borrowed. It does not take a degree in advanced economics to instantly realize that such a stance is untenable and cannot be long continued without the structure and legitimacy of the entire economic system falling into a state of collapse. As such, the current status quo with regards to debt level and spending is both untenable and unwise. One need look no further than examples of Greece and other nations to rapidly realize what maintaining a dangerously high percentage of debt to national GDP portends. Similarly, whereas the solution mechanism may be a shared sacrifice over a period of ma ny years, the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Scavenger Hunt - Research Paper Example Question 2: sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can cause infertility The two main sexually transmitted infections that cause infertility are gonorrhea and Chlamydia (Wingood & DiClemente, 2002). Gonorrhea is caused by bacteria and dwells in the bodily fluids. It is contacted through vaginal, anal or oral sex. It leads to a condition known as epididymitis and Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (Fogel & Woods, 2008). This is due to the infection of the urethral tract and the vaginal duct. Chlamydia is also caused by bacteria that stay in vaginal fluid and semen. It left untreated Chlamydia causes infertility where a condition known as epididymitis and PID causes the infertility (Covington, & Burns, 2006). Question 3: Giardiasis The disease is commonly known as Beaver fever (Veliah, 2005). It is a gastrointestinal illness that is exhibited by serious diarrhea. The disease is caused by a parasite that is known as Giardia Lamblia. This is disease is water-borne and it affects the human intestines where it affects over 200 million populace globally every years (Langford, & Langford, 2002). The disease is reported to have affected about 90 communities in the United States in the years between 1964 and 1984 (Caveney, Jones & Ellis, 2012). Question 4: peer-reviewed journal article on smoking cessation Michele A Faulkner, (2009), Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline, Journal: Clinical Economics and Outcomes Research, Vol. 1, issu 1. Pgs 25-30 is a peer reviewed article that addresses the attempts in reducing the use of tobacco. The article raises concerns that despite the many efforts in reducing the use of tobacco the rate of smoking continues to go high leading to premature death and morbidity. There are economic costs related to smoking which include health care costs and loss of productivity (AJHP, 1986 & Callahan, 2000). The main program raised in the article is the varenicline novel mechanism aimed at addressing the ability to r educe the addiction and withdrawal symptoms (Michele, 2009). Question 5: Durham Region with the highest percentage of births to teenagers According to various findings it has been established that Oshawa area in the Durham Region has the highest rate of births to teenagers which replicates the place the mother was living at the time the child was born (Smithard, 2009). The high births rates are as a result of availability of less expensive housing and the supports and motivation from the mothers (Goldin, Reinert & World Bank, 2007; Vargas, 2009). Question 6: The difference between angina and a heart attack Angina is a term that is applied by doctors to refer to the pain in the chest as a result of insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscles (Jevon, 2012). This form of pain is identical to the pain as a result of heart attack (Jackson, 2004). On the other hand heart attack is a long lasting damage to the heart muscle which might lead to inability of the tissues to function well d ue to lack of blood supply. The heart muscles need regular oxygen supply which is initiated through the blood (Ramaiah, 2008). Question 7: The Cost of Type 2 Diabetes in Canada The type 2 diabetes is along life state where
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The communist Manifesto - Essay Example Marx and Engels influenced by the philosophy of Hegel, set out to change the face of the earth by calling the workers to unite to overthrow the capitalists. The Communist Manifesto was meant to provide the proletariat with required impetus for a social change. The Communists have no other interests but the proletariat. Since capitalism exploits the laborers but offers them only their subsistence wages, Communism is opposed to capitalism. The bourgeoisies' notions of freedom, culture, law, etc., are determined by their economical conditions. Communism, hence, abolishes eternal truths, religions and morality, for they are products of historical development. The core agenda is to acquire political supremacy by abolishing the private property and thereby uprooting the bourgeoisies. The proletariat, then, will centralize all instruments of production, and increase the productive forces. As class distinctions disappear, the proletarians will have an association, in which the free development of each will be the condition for the free development of all (Marx and Engels, Proletarians). Capitalism is characterized by private property, freedom of enterprise, profit motive, consumers' sovereignty, freedom of saving and investment decisions, and existence of competition, among others. Capitalist system necessarily envelops the private ownership of the means of production.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Interactive Video Delivery Services Video-On-Demand Interactive Services Interactive video delivery services are a fundamental change in the TV interfaceÃ paradigm. They shift the delivery paradigm from carrying many simultaneous parallelÃ streams (channels) to one that carries concurrent accesses through separate channels into aÃ database. Traditionally, in a broadcast TV system, many stations broadcast their programsÃ simultaneously and the user selects a specific channel to view. As a result, a user isÃ restricted to a chronology of parallel and competing programming whereas, an interactiveÃ system makes all programming available to its users without this restriction. There is noÃ temporal restriction. All programming becomes available any time to the user. Types of Interactive Services Based on the amount of interactivity allowed (adapted from ), interactive services can be classified into several categories. The user is a passive participant and has no control over the session in broadcast (No-VOD) services that are similar to broadcast TV. The user signs up and pays for specific programming, similar to existing CATV PPV services in pay-per-view (PPV) services. The users are grouped based on a threshold of interest in quasi video-on-demand (Q-VOD) services. By switching to a different group, users can perform rudimentary temporal control activities. The functions like forward and reverse are simulated by transitions in discrete time intervals (on the order of 5 minutes) in near video-on-demand (N-VOD) services. The multiple channels with the same programming skewed in time [5, 15] can provide this capability. The user has complete control over the session presentation in true video-on-demand (T-VOD) services. The user has full-function VCR (virtual VCR) capabilities including forward and reverse play, freeze, and random positioning. For T-VOD, only a single channel is necessary; multiple channels become redundant. Technological Inhibitors There are other inhibiting issues to the ubiquitous deployment of interactive multimedia applications than just technological issues. In the digital environment, information is readily copied, reproduced, and altered, jeopardizing the established markets of the information providers. To convince an information provider to accept an all-digital system, certain incentives like mechanisms like encryption to protect intellectual property rights Ã¢â¬â that will maintain their data and thus help them stay in business are needed. (The Internet does not copy data, people copy data.) System Components for Video-on-Demand 5A detailed analysis of these issues is beyond the scope of this paper. An interesting survey of theÃ intellectual property rights problem has been provided by Samuelson . Hundreds (if not thousands) of users with different viewing preferences will access a VOD system simultaneously. The quality of each session must remain within specified bounds to achieve customer satisfaction. This ensures the quality of the system. We will survey the individual technologies in the context of an end-to-end architecture for a VOD system. A typical VOD scenario contains a local database and server connected to user homesÃ via a communications network. The user home consists of a network interface coupled to aÃ display . The user interacts with the system via a mouse or a computer keyboard. Fig. 2 illustrates this architecture. user interface and display high-speed backbone local database local server home viewer network interface multimedia archive and distributor multimedia archive Figure 2: A Simple VOD Architecture Management of System Resources in VOD We identified some of the technical problems in designing a VOD system in the previous sections. A VOD system is required to support a large customer population and many movie titles. Most existing prototypes are constricted to laboratory or office environments and support at most a few hundred users and up to a hundred movies. Large scale commercial systemsÃ should need to more closely match the per-user resource requirements and usage patterns toÃ achieve economic feasibility. In this section, we look over some of these problems and discussÃ existing research in this area. Resource Reservation One of the fundamental problems in developing a VOD system is one of storage and network I/OÃ bandwidth management. The VOD system possesses a finite amount of resources measured inÃ terms of storage I/O and communication bandwidths. As various customers compete for the sameÃ system resources, efficient schemes that ensure fairness of allocation have to be designed. The service provider wants to generate the maximum revenue from the offered services. AÃ balance between these two often opposing requirements is necessary to tap the potentialÃ benefits of the system. The first step to solve this problem is the development of anÃ accurate system model. We use the model proposed in Fig 2 as the basis for the remainderÃ of this discussion. The end-to-end VOD system comprises of three basic components; the storage server,Ã the network, and the user interface. The metadata server provides an additional level ofÃ complexity to the system model. The time dependency of continuous media requires theÃ VOD system to ensure that the data transmission mechanism can provide for strict deadlines.Ã If these deadlines are missed, it is possible for the quality of the session to degrade. To ensure customer satisfaction, resources should be reserved along the entire data path of a connection on a per-session basis. The complexity of the resource reservation mechanism depends on theÃ application under consideration. Interactive services need the resource reservation to be made per-session along the entire data path, including at the source. A crucial factor which is affecting resource reservation is Quality-of-Service (QOS). The common interpretation of QOS is from a network perspective rather than a user or customer perspective. A more suitable view makes use of the two perspectives and yields two QOS characterizations (we can call them delivery quality and system QOS). A presentÃ challenge is to identify the mapping from delivery quality to system QOS for a range ofÃ system design parameters (e.g., data compression and network switching modes). User Traffic Characterization Although customers access the VOD system randomly, having a priori knowledge aboutÃ user access patterns can lead to a more efficient design. The system can make use of this information to manage network and storage bandwidths. As an example, if the traffic characteristics indicate that a movie is popular at a particular site, the system can replicate the movie locally to increase availability. The access pattern of users to the system will not be uniform over a givenÃ 24 hour period. Typically, one would expect the load to be low to moderate during theÃ daytime and to increase gradually through the evening and decrease again during the night. A hypothetical graph characterizing the access to a VOD database for a 24 hour periodÃ is shown in Fig. 4. The access to the database is high during the evening hours, peaks atÃ around 9:00 PM, and is low-to-moderate during the day. This access pattern can be used forÃ designing schemes for various considerations like resource management; to update popularity tables, redistribute data, and reconfigure the system during off-peak hours. 0 5 10 15 20 time-of-day database-load Figure 4: A Schematic Daily-Access Model for a VOD System Similar models can be implemented and maintained for different geographical regions, movie categories, and individual titles. Such models are able to accommodate the differences in programming choices (e.g., childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies are more popular during the early evening hours) of different user groups. However, the complexity of these models, and their tractability is still to be established. Load Balancing An issue related directly to resource reservation is load balancing. The load balancing of VOD can be viewed as a combination of two sub-problems (i) The movie-storageÃ allocation problem and (ii) the resource location and connection establishment mechanism. Even though these problems are solved more easily individually, they are not independentÃ with respect to performance. From the perspective of a generic interactiveÃ system, solving these issues is an open problem; however, simplifications can yield tractable solutions. As an example, if one assumes that a VOD system supports only stored data; i.e., moviesÃ have to be digitized and stored before they can become available online, then the dataÃ characteristics of a movie are well known in advance (e.g., the system has a priori knowledgeÃ about the average bandwidth, burst rates, burst durations, etc.). This knowledge once available, can be used to simplify the design process. Making use of the metadata mechanism as described in Section 3 simplifies the task of management by decoupling the storage problem from the location problem.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
It is hard to explain to most people the reason why even though I was born in the United States of America and had a complete set of parents at the time of my birth, I was still sent to Haiti to be raised by a surrogate family. Not everyone understands the crazy things that parents do when their marriage is failing and the family is falling apart, as my parents chose to do. I do not remember much about my childhood in the USA because I left when I was seven years old. All that I could remember about that time was that my mother came home one day really sad and she asked my two sisters and I to pack up our things because we were going on an airplane ride. When I asked her where we were headed, thinking that we were probably going to Disneyland or something, she told me that we were going to take a vacation at her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s house in Haiti. This did not strike me as strange at the time because I had never met my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sister at that point in time so I was excited to meet her. Mom told us that we had cousins in Haiti and we would get to meet them for the very first time during this trip. When I asked my mom if Dad would be joining us on this trip, she said that he was too busy at work to come along but that he loved us and wished us a safe trip. So it happened that I left my country of birth in 1973 to embark on a life that was thrust upon me without a choice nor a reason why I had to live it. Our mother spent a whole month with us in Haiti. I have some vague recollection of my mother sitting at the dining table at night with her sister, crying and in need of consolation. At the end of the month, I remember seeing my mother packing her suitcase. I thought it was time to go home and that she had simply forgotten to tell my sisters and I to pack up our things. So I began doing so without being instructed to. When mom saw what I was doing, she asked me to stop and come out to the backyard to have a talk. We sat on the swing in the small backyard of my auntÃ¢â¬â¢s house as my mother explained what our new family situation was. She asked me if I remembered how she and dad had been fighting a lot lately and sometimes he would not come home for days because of the arguments. I recall that at the time I had vague recollections of my parents voices breaking through the bedroom walls at night when they thought we were already asleep. Slowly, mom explained to me that the marriage was in trouble and that the family was falling apart. She assured me that they both still loved us more than life itself but that they felt it would be best if we stayed n Haiti while they finalized the divorce and they both tried to get back on their feet after. It hurt me a lot to be indirectly told that my sisters and I had no place in our parents lives anymore. I felt abandoned and betrayed by both my parents. I was angry that even though I was just a little girl, I would have to find a way to explain what was going on to my sisters and make sure that they would be able to adjust to a life without our real mom and dad. We were all born in New York City and were accustomed to its lifestyle and culture. O when we were forcibly left in Haiti by our mom, we had to overcome the culture shock and social difficulty of having to live in a different environment from what we were used to. My sisters and I also had to lowly began to adjust to life with our surrogate parents. That is, our aunt and her husband. We had surrogate siblings as well because they eventually had their own children. We were a large, convoluted, extended family. As time passed, we became less American and more Haitian. French became our mother tongue and English was a stranger to us. We were happy and well adjusted kids who saw no difference in the way we were treated by our guardians who loved and treated us as if we were their own flesh and blood. Our parents? We spoke to them separately over the phone 4 times a month. We were strangers who did not really know anything about each other and did not have much to talk about over the phone. Those times were more like mandatory duties that our aunt and uncle made sure we accomplished without fail.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Through his use of dialectical materialism, Marx not only changed the history of economic thought, but found great illumination for himself regarding the bonds of human society. The concept that seems relatively simple in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s complex economic world was utterly revolutionary in the time of Marx: people develop their ideas about the world (and thereby, their ideas for how society should be organized and stratified) based on the material aspects of their lives. It was an elegant extension of basic Marxist theory: capitalism, according to Marx, is interested in offering naked materialism as a kind of booby prize to make up for the means of production being taken away from the people. If the people can no longer work for themselves and no longer work at perfecting their own craft as individuals, then, as Marx correctly deduced, people would require something to validate their work. This became the center of capitalism, as Marx understood it: materialism exists as a kind of justification for capitalism, and since materialism has permeated our culture to such an extreme degree, eventually social orders began to revolve around it. Hence, what capitalism serves as the cause of what Marx saw as nothing less than ongoing class warfare. It is interesting to note that Marx believed a violent revolution on the part of the proletariat was not simply a possible method of changing things, but actually served as the only method of changing things. This is because materialism was so embedded into class structures (which, in turn, was so embedded in power structures), and the only way for society to functionally survive was for it to become overturned completely. It is also interesting to note the ongoing effect that Marx has had on philosophic thought: materialism had previously been dislodged by Descartes and the famous declaration Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I am;Ã¢â¬ as far as most people who pondered these things could conclude, thought preceded matter. However, Marx not only brought materialism to the philosophic forefrontÃ¢â¬âthe then-controversial idea that material preceded thoughtÃ¢â¬âbut illustrated the notion that the abstractions of materialism had been concretized by capitalism into purchasable goods. 2: Marx and the Secret Source of Profit Perhaps the most enduring notion of MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s is the so-called secret of the source of profit under a capitalistic societyÃ¢â¬ ¦though such is MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy of intellectual thought, a great many people simply accept this notion as reality: the source of profit is the surplus value that an employer gains from laborers. After all, the means of production have been taken from the people: skilled artisan cobblers have been replaced by factory line workers churning out shoe after shoe after shoe. The money saved by employing this assembly-line method of industrial production becomes pure profit for the employer. Interestingly, Marx tethered this to his own theories on circulating capitalÃ¢â¬âthat is, something that does not last, and is used up in the production of other goods and services, in direct opposition to fixed capital, which is traditionally held for over a year by a business or institution. Marx astutely deduced that the distinction between these concepts is not only relative, but arbitrary: the idea that capital held for 365 days is circulating and that capital held for 366 days is fixed is absurd. However, it allows the proletariat to essentially gloss over their own necessity to the entire institution of capitalism: they are led to believe that society is held up by the fixed capital of major investors and their long-term investments. In reality, society is held aloft by the ongoing purchases of the common man (and woman): their disposable income is burned off to provide them a sense that capitalism is worth itÃ¢â¬ ¦it turn, their disposable income is used to make the rich richer, as the cliche goes, all the way up the capitalist pyramid. In MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s view, this is one of many ways that those in power forestall the seemingly unavoidable class war that he advocates: those with powerÃ¢â¬âthe purchasing power of the common manÃ¢â¬âare convinced they have none, and are bought off with trinkets. It is interesting to note that this echoes the master/slave morality inversion of Nietzsche. 3: Marginalists and the Economy In the evolution of economic theory, the impact of marginalism cannot be overstated. Once one had accepted the blunt realities of MarxÃ¢â¬âspecifically, that society was organized based on the perceived value of itemsÃ¢â¬âthe logical question remained: how does one quantify the value of an item? Marginalism illustrated the diminishing returns on the marginal utility of resold products, which dramatically impacted analysis of capitalist economy, the focus of economic analysis, and theories of value and distribution. Regarding the analysis of capitalist economy, marginalism helped solidify the supply and demand notion of economics as that of mainstream economic thought, as opposed to the labor theory of value espoused by Karl Marx. To put it mildly, this has had ongoing economic effects for the last century and a half. The focus of economic analysis shifted accordingly, as marginalism interacted with price theory: this allowed economics to project demand curves utilizing marginal rates of substitution as a means of determining not only when, but why a seller is willing to relinquish a product for a particular price. Perhaps one of the most lasting effects of marginalism on economic thought has been its effect on theories of value and distribution. With the previous measures in place, economists (as well as common people) now had a more-or-less accurate measure of determining the value of any given product in any given social context. Of course, this also effects the ongoing distribution of certain products to certain demographics in order to maximize profitability. Interestingly, this is one of the chief criticisms of marginalism as well: that it is a vague pseudoscience whose intent is to maintain not only the economic status quo, but the appearance of the status quo. It is no surprise, then, that Marxists continue to grapple with marginalist theory: they see it as a means of keeping the proletariat in check, and preventing any uprisings from them. 4: Thorstein Veblen: Survival of the Fattest Thorstein Veblen, for better or worse, specialized in bringing the human element into economic theory. Specifically, he theorized that the institution of the leisure class was a parasite feeding upon America: upon the backs of workers who are actually productive are a class who seek only profit and produce nothing but waste. He essentially created and popularized the notion of conspicuous consumption as the epitome of this theory: that wealthy individuals spend large amounts of money on ostentatious goods whose sole benefit is to publicly display their wealth to the world. Unfortunately, this has become an integral part of the economy: although an engineer might weep at the man spending over a hundred thousand dollars for a car, the American economy would be crippled if conspicuous consumption vanished overnight. Hence, the parasite metaphor: conspicuous consumption and naked profit helps the wealthy to bloat themselves on the backs of the poor until the entire enterprise inevitably crumbles under its own weight. Veblen perceived quite clearly that human notions about the world are social constructs created by individuals, and as time went on, those notions would change, necessitating a change in economic thought as well. He makes frequent comparisons to evolution to further this end: idle curiosity spurs innovation, innovation spurs conflict between the old guard and the innovators, and an economic Darwinism is born. The advent of industry and technological revolutions merely expanded his original point: the parasitic relationship continued unabated, as the innovations of the productive engineer class were inevitably utilized as means of conspicuous consumption and waste on the part of the leisure class. Planes are developed as a result of idle curiosity, for instance, but it is the leisure class that necessitates the invention of first class as a way of displaying their own status in the social hierarchy.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye Famed Egyptologist Zahi Hawass considers the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III, one of the final rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty, as the greatest monarch ever reign over the Two Lands. Dubbed the Magnificent, this fourteenth-century B.C. pharaoh brought in unprecedented amounts of gold to his kingdom, built tons of epic structures, including the famed Colossi of Memnon and lots of religious buildings, and depicted his wife, Queen Tiye, in an unprecedentedly egalitarian fashion. Lets dive into the revolutionary era of Amenhotep and Tiye. Amenhotep was born to Pharaoh Thutmose IV and his wife Mutemwia. Aside from his alleged role in re-establishing the Great Sphinx as a big tourist spot, Thutmose IV wasnt that notable of a pharaoh. He did, however, do a bit of building, especially at Amuns temple in Karnak, where he explicitly identified himself with the sun god Re. More on that later!Ã Sadly for young Prince Amenhotep, his dad didnt live very long, dying when his kid was about twelve. Amenhotep ascended the throne as a boy king, exercising his only dated military campaign when he was about seventeen in Kush. By his mid-teens, though, Amenhotep wasnt focusing on the army, but his one true love, a woman named Tiye. Shes mentioned as the Great Royal Wife Tiye in his second regnal year - meaning they got married when he was just a kid! Tip ofÃ the Hat to Queen Tiye Tiye was a truly remarkable woman. Her parents, Yuya and Tjuya, were non-royal officials; Daddy was a charioteer and priest called the Gods Father, while Mom was a priestess of Min. Yuya and Tjuyas fabulous tomb was uncovered in 1905, and archaeologists found lots of riches there; DNA testing performed on their mummies in recent years has proved key in identifying unidentified bodies. One of Tiyes brothers was a prominent priest named Anen, and many have suggested that the famous Eighteenth Dynasty official Ay, alleged father of Queen Nefertiti and eventual pharaoh after King Tut, was another of her siblings.Ã So Tiye married her husband when they were both quite young, but the most interesting item about her is the way in which she was portrayed in statuary. Amenhotep deliberately commissioned statues showing himself, the king, and Tiye as the same size, showing her importance in the royal court, which was on par with that of the Ã pharaoh! In a culture in which visual size was everything, bigger was better, so a big king and an equally big queen showed them as equals.Ã This egalitarian portrayal is pretty much unprecedented, showing Amenhoteps devotion to his wife, allowing her to wield influence comparable to his own. Tiye even takes on masculine, regal poses, showing up on her own throne as a Sphinx who crushes her enemiesÃ and getting her own Sphinx colossus; now, shes not only equal to a king in the way shes portrayed, but shes taking on his roles! But Tiye wasnt Amenhoteps only wife - far from it! Like many pharaohs before and after him, the king took brides from foreign countries in order to form alliances. A commemorative scarab was commissioned for the marriage between the pharaoh and Kilu-Hepa, daughter of the king of Mitanni. He also wed his own daughters, as other pharaohs did, once they came of age; whether or not those marriages were consummated is up for debate. Divine Dilemmas In addition to Amenhoteps marital program, he also pursued massive construction projects throughout Egypt, which burnished his own reputation - and that of his wife! They also helped people think of him as semi-divine and created money-making opportunities for his officials. Perhaps more importantly for his son and successor, the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaten, Amenhotep III followed in his fathers sandalprints and identified himself with the biggest gods of the Egyptian pantheon on the monuments he built.Ã In particular, Amenhotep placed great emphasis on sun gods in his construction, statuary, and portraiture, displaying whatÃ Arielle Kozloff aptly called a solar bent in every aspect of his realm. He showed himself as the god of the sun at Karnak and contributed extensively to Amun-Res temple there; later in life, Amenhotep even went to far as to consider himself as a living manifestation ofÃ allÃ deity, with an emphasis on the sun god Ra-Horakhty, according to W. Raymond Johnson. Although historians dubbed him the Magnificent, Amenhotep went by the moniker of the Dazzling Sun Disk. Given his fathers obsession with his connection to the solar gods, its not too far of a stretch to get to the aforementioned Akhenaten, his son by Tiye and successor, who declared that the sun disk, Aten, should be the sole deity worshipped in the Two Lands. And of course Akhenaten (who started his reign as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his name) stressed thatÃ he, the king,Ã was the sole intermediary between the divine and the mortal realms. So it looks like Amenhoteps emphasis on the Ã godly powers of the king went to an extreme in his sons reign. But Tiye may have also set a precedent for her Nefertiti, her daughter-in-law (and possible niece, if the queen was the daughter of Tiyes putative brother Ay). In the reign of Akhenaten, Nefertiti was depicted as occupying roles of great prominence in her husbands court and in his new religious order. Perhaps Tiyes legacy of carving out a great role for the Great Royal Wife as partner to the pharaoh, rather than mere spouse, carried on to her successor. Interestingly, Nefertiti also assumed some kingly positions in art, as her mother-in-law did (she was shown smiting enemies in a typical pharaonic pose).
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Learn the Building Blocks of Chinese Characters While learning to speak Chinese at a basic level isnt that much harder than learning other languages (its even easier in some areas), learning to write is definitely and without a doubt much more demanding. Learning to Read and Write Chinese Is Not Easy There are many reasons for this. First, its because the link between the written and spoken language is very weak. While in Spanish you can mostly read what you can understand when spoken and you can write what you can say (bar some minor spelling problems), in Chinese the two are more or less separate. Second, the way Chinese characters represent sounds is complicated and requires much more than learning an alphabet. If you know how to say something, writing is not just a matter of checking how its spelled, you have to learn the individual characters, how they are written and how they are combined to form words. To become literate, you need between 2500 and 4500 characters (depending on what you mean by the term literate). You need many times more characters than the number of words. However, the process of learning to read and write can be made a lot simpler than it first seems. Learning 3500 characters is not impossible and with proper reviewing and active usage, you can also avoid mixing them up (this is actually the main challenge for non-beginners). Still, 3500 is a massive number. It would mean almost 10 characters per day for a year. Added to that, you would also need to learn words, which are combinations of characters that sometimes have non-obvious meanings. ...But It Neednt Be Impossible Either Looks difficult, right? Yes, but if you break these 3500 characters down into smaller components, you will find that the number of parts you need to learn is very far from 3500. In fact, with just a few hundred components, you can build most of those 3500 characters. Before we move on, its perhaps worth noting here that we are using the word component very deliberately instead of using the word radical, which is a small subset of components that are used to classify words in dictionaries. The Building Blocks of Chinese Characters So, by learning the components of characters, you create a repository of building blocks that you can then use to understand, learn and remember characters. This is not very efficient in the short term because each time you learn a character, you need to learn not only that character but also the smaller components its made of. However, this investment will be repaid handsomely later. It might not be a good idea to learn all components of all characters directly but focus on the most important ones first. I will introduce some resources to help you both with breaking characters down into their component parts and where you can find more information about which components to learn first. Functional Components Its important to understand that each component has a function in the character; its not there by chance. Sometimes the real reason the character looks like it does is lost in the mists of time, but often its known or even directly apparent from studying the character. At other times, an explanation might present itself that is very convincing, and even though it might not be etymologically correct, it can still help you to learn and remember that character. In general, components are included in characters for two reasons: first because of the way they sound, and second because of what they mean. We call these phonetic or sound components and semantic or meaning components. This is a very useful way of looking at characters that often yields much more interesting and useful results than looking at the traditional explanation of how characters are formed. Its still worthwhile to have that in the back of your mind when learning, but you dont really need to study it in detail. A Writing Example Lets look at a character most students learn early on: Ã¥ ¦Ë/Ã¥ ª ½ (simplified/traditional), which is pronouncedÃ mÃ (first tone) and means mother. The left part Ã¥ ¥ ³ means woman and is clearly related to the meaning of the whole character (your mother is presumably a woman). The right part Ã© © ¬/Ã© ¦ ¬ means horse and is clearly not related to the meaning. However, it is pronouncedÃ mÃÅ½ (third tone), which is very close to the pronunciation of the whole character (only the tone is different).Ã This is the way most Chinese characters work, albeit not all. The Art of Combining CharactersÃ All this leaves us with hundreds (rather than thousands) of characters to remember. Apart from that, we also have the additional task of combining the components we have learned into compound characters. This is what were going to look at now. Combining characters is actually not that hard, at least not if you use the right method This is because if you know what the components mean, the character composition itself means something to you and that makes it a lot easier to remember. There is a huge difference between learning a random jumble of strokes (very hard) and combining known components (relatively easy). Improve Your Memory Combining things is one of the main areas of memory training and something that people have had the ability to do for thousands of years. There are many, many methods out there that work really well and that teach you how to remember that A, B, and C belong to each other (and in that order, if you like, although this is often not necessary when it comes to Chinese characters, because you quickly get a feel for that and only a very small number of characters can be mixed up by accidentally moving character components around). The main takeaway is that memory is a skill and its something you can train. That naturally includes your ability to learn and remember Chinese characters. Remembering Chinese Characters The best way of combining components is to create a picture or scene that includes all the components in a memorable way. This should be absurd, funny or exaggerated in some way. Exactly what makes you remember something is something you need to figure out by trial and error, but going for the absurd and exaggerated often works well for most people. You can, of course, draw or use real pictures rather than just imaginary ones, but if you do, you need to be really careful that you dont break the structure of the character. Simply put, the pictures you use to learn Chinese characters should preserve the building blocks that that character consists of. The reason for this should be apparent at this point. If you just use a picture that is suitable for that character, but which doesnt preserve the structure of the character, it will only be useful for learning that very character. If you follow the structure of the character, you can use the pictures for the individual components to learn tens or hundreds of other characters. In short, if you use bad pictures, you lose the benefit of those all-important building blocks. Helpful Resources for Learning Chinese Characters Now, lets look at a few resources for learning the building blocks of Chinese characters: Hacking Chinese: Here youll find a list of the 100 most common radicals. We are mostly concerned with components here, not radicals, but it so happens that radicals are often semantic components, so this list is still useful.Hanzicraft: This is an excellent website that allows you to break down Chinese characters into their component parts. Note that the breakdown is purely visual, so it doesnt really care if its historically correct. You can also find phonetic information here, which is again based only on mechanical comparison of the pronunciation of the components and the full character (its not historically correct either, in other words). Also on the plus side, this site is fast and easy to use.Zdic.net: This is an online, free dictionary that offers decent information about the structure of a character that is also more in line with what we know about the development of a specific character (its manual, not automatic).ArchChinese: This is another online dictionary that gives yo u the ability to both breakdown characters and see the components in context (with frequency information, which is quite rare in other dictionaries). Semantic component posters from Outlier Linguistics: These posters show 100 semantic components and apart from being very informative, they also look great on your wall. They come with information on how to utilize them and accurate descriptions (manually made by people who know a lot about Chinese characters). That should be enough to get you started. There will still be cases you cant find or that dont make sense to you. if you encounter these, you can try a number of different methods, such as creating a picture specifically for that character or making up the meaning on your own - this is easier than trying to remember meaningless strokes.