Sunday, February 23, 2020

Walmart Just In Time focus on procurement and distribution, logistics Research Paper

Walmart Just In Time focus on procurement and distribution, logistics management processes and benefits of process for Walmart - Research Paper Example In this context, this study focuses on the Just in time inventory system and the logistics management Wal-Mart is using. Just-in-Time Concept of Inventory Many authors defined just in time inventory (JIT) system differently, but it all refers to a system wherein materials are delivered just in time for its use whether in manufacturing or selling. In JIT system, it has been the practice of companies like Wal-Mart to schedule purchases and production only as needed to meet actual consumers’ demand. The purpose of this system is to reduce inventories to a minimum level, or wherever possible to a â€Å"zero level† (Accounting for Management, n.d.). As the concept would suggest, JIT for Wal-Mart is a cycle that means products for sale are received from supplier just in time to replenish the stocks on the shelves, thereby reducing inventories from their previous level. The Just in time inventory system has been applied at every stores of Wal-Mart, and as observed, the secret lies in its sophisticated just in time logistics system found in the RFID technology. The system has provided Wal-Mart a continuous tracking, real-time sales feedback from every store and plot stock depletion rates so they can arrange new deliveries just as existing supplies are about to run out. The illustration below depicts a Just in-time system inventory management that begins with the order of the customer, and the processes that channels the ordering system. JIT system is ideal for manufacturing and merchandising concerns that tends to eliminate too much inventories which are not needed in the manufacturing or sale immediately. Source of diagram: (Accounting for The logistics management of Wal-Mart, an introduction to RFID In order to understand the complexity of Wal-Mart operations and why there is a need for a logistics management process, an insight to its structure is presented. Wal-Mart manages retail stores worldwide in a range of set-up. Its segments inc lude US market, International market and the on line ordering system. The US segment carries almost all items ordinarily found in a supermarket store, or may be easier said, â€Å"ask it, Wal-Mart has it† (WMT Profile). The international segment has various formats of stores and restaurants that include a combination of discount and grocery stores, supermarkets, supercenters, cash and carry stores, hypermarkets, general merchandise stores and the Sam Clubs. The Sam Club segment, which is available thru membership, carries merchandise, hard and soft goods and selected private-label items. Profile of Wal-Mart stores showed the following number of stores as of January 31, 2010 (Table1). Table 1 Number of Wal-Mart Retail Stores as of January 31, 2010 Number of stores Location Number of stores Location 803 discount stores United States 43 Argentina 2,747 supercenters United States 434 Brazil 1158 neighborhood markets United States 317 Canada 596 Sam Clubs United States 252 Chile 1 70 Costa Rica 77 El Salvador 164 Guatemala 53 Honduras 1 India 371 Mexico 55 Nicaragua 56 Puerto Rico 371 United Kingdom 279 Peoples Rep. of China Source: Yahoo Finance, 2010. Wal-Mart Stores Profile Logistics management process of Wal-Mart In the above scenario of retail stores, tracking of individual products in its different chains and warehouses is a difficult task. This would need an efficient system of monitoring and control such that Wal-Mart saw a need for a

Friday, February 7, 2020

How electricity is produced in nuclear power station Essay

How electricity is produced in nuclear power station - Essay Example A nuclear plant produces heat exactly in the same way as a thermal power plant does by converting the heat generated from the process into steam which is used to swing the blades of the turbine. But we know that the thermal power plant uses oil or coal to generate steam in order to produce electricity. However, the process in nuclear plant is much different since it does not consume fossil fuel to generate heat but rather it works through the process of nuclear fission. A nuclear power plant harnesses the power of atoms to create energy. As we know that the core of the atom is made up of particles called neutrons and protons. The process is initiated when an element such as Uranium is placed at the core of reactors in the rods and free neutrons are released into the core of the reactor. When a free neutron strikes with Uranium nucleus it starts splitting into smaller atoms which trigger the process of fission. When the process of fission sets off on the way, it splits the heavy atoms into multiple atoms by absorption of a neutron. Often in the case of Uranium Nucleus, when the neutron strikes it might split into two smaller nuclei of unequal fragments. During this process, a large amount of energy is exuded and simultaneously some neutrons are also emitted. As a result of this, neutrons start straying and are absorbed by nuclei of other atoms thus creating a chain reaction. The process is depicted in figure 1. Figure 1: Fission process Nuclear energy stems from the nuclear plants called reactor available in different forms such as Pressurized Water Reactor, Boiler Water Reactor etc. A nuclear reactor is made up of some major components; a moderator, fuel rods, control rods and the coolant. The turbine and the heat exchanger lie outside of the nuclear plant. The fuel rods generally have a diameter of 1 cm and they are approximately 11.5 feet long. These rods are assembled into large groups and they are placed at the core of the nuclear reactor and this is the pl ace where Uranium is kept. Control rods as the name suggests is used for controlling the chain reaction as they have a tendency to absorb neutrons. These control rods are connected to machines that can pull or push them to the core of the reactor. When they are fully lowered into the core, it halts the flow of fission process because they absorb all the free neutrons. Similarly, if these control rods are pulled, fission process can again stimulate as a neutron strikes the Uranium giving rise to more neutrons thus again triggering a chain reaction. The moderator also lies at the heart of the reactor and it functions to slow down the speedy neutrons which are flying all around the reactor. Neutrons which are bursting with unflagging energy travel at a lightning speed and they are able to pierce the nucleus of Uranium. Since the chain reaction increases at a blistering pace therefore there is a need to slow down the momentum of the process which can be done by the use of moderators. Th e moderator slows down and moderates the level of speed such that the neutron can be captured by the nucleus of the element in use which can trigger the process of fission. Heavy water is amongst the most common type of moderator although there are other options available too. Heavy water is different from the normal water H2O as it is made up of deuterium which